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Année 2014

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Working papers - documents de travail du CREM

Année 2014 <a id="Année 2014"></a>

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  • 2014-17 - Jean Bonnet, Domingo Garcia Perez De Lema, Carlos Martinez-Abarca-Pastor, Ugo Rizzo
    Les déterminants de la création de spin-off académiques. Une comparaison internationale dans les établissements supérieurs de Caen, Carthagène et Ferrare
  • 2014-16 - Rafik Abdesselam, Jean Bonnet, Patricia Renou-Maissant, Mathilde Aubry
    What happened to entrepreneurial economies after the financial crisis ? An empirical study of OECD countries
  • 2014-15 - Catherine Benjamin, Isabelle Cadoret, Marie-Hélène Hubert
    The European Climate Policy is Ambitious : Myth or Reality ?
  • 2014-14 - David L. Dickinson, David Masclet
    Emotion Venting and Punishment in Public Good Experiments
  • 2014-13 - Éric Darmon, Sylvain Dejean, Thierry Pénard
    La réponse graduée de l’Hadopi a-t-elle un effet sur le piratage de musique et de films ? Une étude empirique des pratiques de consommation en ligne
  • 2014-12 - Éric Kamwa, Vincent Merlin
    Scoring rule, Consistency, Collective Ranking, Committee, Paradox, Impartial Culture
  • 2014-11 - Aurélie Bonein
    Social Comparison and Peer effects with Heterogeneous Ability
  • 2014-10 - Elsa Orgiazzi, Paul Maarek
    Labor Share and development
  • 2014-09 - Raphaël Suire, Jérôme Vincente
    Récents enseignements de la théorie des réseaux en faveur de la politique et du management des clusters
  • 2014-08 - Mamadou Diop
    Stability pact and risk of pro-cyclical fiscal policy in Economic and Monetary Union countries : the case of UEMOA
  • 2014-07 - Fabien Rondeau, Nolwenn Roudaut
    What Diversification of Trade Matters for Economic Growth of Developing Countries ?
  • 2014-06 - Sylvain Dejean, Raphaël Suire
    Digital files dealers and prohibition in the context of the French 3 strikes (HADOPI) law
  • 2014-05 - Éric Darmon, Dominique Torre
    Open Source, Dual Licensing and Software Competition
  • 2014-04 - Éric Darmon, Alexandra Rufini, Dominique Torre
    Publisher’s announcements and piracy-monitoring devices in software adoption
  • 2014-03 - Éric Darmon, Thomas Le Texier
    Private or Public Law Enforcement ? The Case of Digital Piracy Policies with Non-monitored Illegal Behaviors
  • 2014-02 - Simon Cornée
    Soft Information and Default Prediction in Cooperative and Social Banks
  • 2014-01 - Michael Arnold, Éric Darmon, Sylvain Dejean, Thierry Pénard
    Graduated Response Policy and the Behavior of Digital Pirates : Evidence from the French Three-strike (Hadopi) Law

     

 

  • Les déterminants de la création de spin-off académiques. Une comparaison internationale dans les établissements supérieurs de Caen, Carthagène et Ferrare
Creation-Date nov-14
Auteur /Author Jean Bonnet, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Normandie Université, France
Auteur /Author Domingo Garcia Perez De Lema, Faculty of Business, Polytechnic University of Carthagène, Spain
Auteur /Author Carlos Martinez-Abarca-Pastor, Faculty of Business, Polytechnic University of Carthagène, Spain
Auteur /Author Ugo Rizzo, Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Italy
Mots clés / Keywords Economic valuation of research activities, University staff, Professional Values, Dissatisfactions, Incentives
Classification-JEL : L26
Abstract This report aims at highlighting the determining factors in the choice made by members of the higher establishments of Caen (France) and of the universities of Carthagène (Spain) and Ferrare (Italy) to create a company rather than resorting to another type of economic valorization of their research activities. Compared to the existing literature we show that these choices have psychological components. If the desire to engage in economic valorization of research activities remains strongly related to the fact that the individuals anticipate it will not mean a break in their career, the choice to resort to entrepreneurship is also characteristic of a young population for which this commitment is prestigious and likely to solve the financial problems inherent to the lack of seniority. The research laboratory does not specifically appear to encourage them to get into entrepreneurship (particularly in France) and the main policies to favor academic entrepreneurship would lie, according to the respondents, in providing financial support and facilitating the mastery of financial abilities and techniques.
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  • What happened to entrepreneurial economies after the financial crisis ? An empirical study of OECD countries
Creation-Date nov-14
Auteur /Author Rafik Abdesselam, COACTIS, Université Lumière Lyon 2, France
Auteur /Author Jean Bonnet, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Normandie Université, France
Auteur /Author Patricia Renou-Maissant, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Normandie Université, France
Auteur /Author Mathilde Aubry, EM Normandie, Métis Research Department, Caen, France
Mots clés / Keywords Entrepreneurship, Data analysis methods, Entrepreneurial/Administrated economies
Classification-JEL : L26, C38, O1
Abstract The aim of this paper is to analyze entrepreneurial activity in OECD countries over the period 1999-2012 in order to make a distinction between economies that are more or less entrepreneurial. A combined use of multidimensional and evolutive data analysis methods is used with variables pertaining to entrepreneurial activity and growth. It allows us to distinguish several types of development. Furthermore, three main periods are found, before, during and after the crisis. The pre-crisis period, from 1999 to 2008, was a period of growth favorable to entrepreneurship while the sub-period 2010-2012 is less favorable. The effects of the financial crisis are noticeable after a delay in 2009. We show that in 2009, the agricultural economies have best withstood the financial crisis. Secondly, during the period 2010-2012 after the crisis, economies widely dependent on the financial sector were most impacted by the financial crisis. Because of the financial crisis, the entrepreneurial dynamics vary greatly across countries over the period 1999-2012, however we were able to establish common trajectories for a number of them.
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  • The European Climate Policy is Ambitious : Myth or Reality ?
Creation-Date oct-14
Revision-Date avr-15
Auteur /Author Catherine Benjamin, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Isabelle Cadoret, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Marie-Hélène Hubert, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Mots clés / Keywords Convergence, Dynamic Panel Data Models, Carbon Dioxide, European-Union, Climate Policy
Classification-JEL : Q42, Q48
Abstract We investigate carbon emission trends among EU Member States by testing the assumption of beta-type convergence for per capita CO2 emissions, conditional upon per capita output and energy use. We find that the emission growth/income relation is strictly negative, indicating that EU-15 countries switched to a less carbon intensive economy starting from the early 1990s. This result remains robust when the new Member States are included. We therefore argue that the decline in EU carbon emissions is a long-term trend and not a result of the economic crisis. We then discuss the effectiveness of climate and energy policies and the EU burden-sharing agreement. Some countries like Germany, Great Britain and France can meet their carbon targets without adopting more aggressive climate and energy policies. Other EU-15 Member States can reduce their domestic emissions beyond their targets if they adopt energy-efficient technologies. Most of the new Member States emit much less than their domestic targets even when per capita income and oil prices increase.
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  • Emotion Venting and Punishment in Public Good Experiments
Creation-Date nov-14
Auteur /Author David L. Dickinson Appalachian State University, CA, USA
Auteur /Author David Masclet, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France and CIRANO, Montréal, Canada
Mots clés / Keywords sanctions, public good, experiment, venting emotions
Classification-JEL : C92, H41, D63
Abstract Experimental studies have shown that sanctions effectively deter free riding within groups. However, the over-use of costly punishment may actually harm overall welfare. A main reason for over-punishment is that free-riders generate negative emotions that likely favor excessive punishments. In this paper we ask whether the venting of one’s emotions in different ways can reduce the level of excessive punishment in a standard VCM-with-punishment environment while preserving the norm enforcement properties of punishment. We find that venting emotions reduces (excessive) punishment, and under certain conditions the net effect is an increase in final payoffs (i.e., welfare) to the group.
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  • La réponse graduée de l’Hadopi a-t-elle un effet sur le piratage de musique et de films ? Une étude empirique des pratiques de consommation en ligne
Creation-Date nov-14
Auteur /Author Éric Darmon, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Sylvain Dejean, LR-MOS, University of La Rochelle, France
Auteur /Author Thierry Pénard, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Mots clés / Keywords piratage numérique, peer-to-peer, Hadopi, filière musicale, filière audiovisuelle
Classification-JEL :
Abstract L’objet de cette étude est d’évaluer les effets de l’Hadopi (Haute Autorité pour la Diffusion des Œuvres et la protection des droits sur Internet) sur les pratiques de consommation d’œuvres musicales et audiovisuelles. L’Hadopi peut avoir potentiellement trois types d’effets : des effets informationnels (par un travail de sensibilisation et de pédagogie auprès des internautes), des effets dissuasifs (à travers la surveillance des réseaux de partage et l’envoi d’avertissements) et des effets incitatifs (en promouvant les offres légales). A partir d’une enquête réalisée en 2012 auprès d’un échantillon représentatif de 2000 internautes français, nous montrons que l’Hadopi n’a pas eu les mêmes effets sur les pratiques de consommation en ligne de musique et de vidéos (films et séries). Nos résultats suggèrent l’existence d’effets dissuasifs et informationnels sur l’acquisition illégale de musique, alors que les effets seraient d’ordre incitatif et informationnel pour les films et séries. Ces effets distincts pourraient s’expliquer à la fois par des différences d’attitudes des internautes vis-à-vis du piratage d’œuvres musicales et audiovisuelles, et par des différences de qualité ou d’attractivité dans les offres légales de musique et de vidéos sur Internet.
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  • Scoring Rules over Subsets of Alternatives : Consistency and Paradoxes
Creation-Date sept-14
Auteur /Author Éric KAMWA, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Caen Basse Normandie, France
Auteur /Author Vincent MERLIN, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Caen Basse Normandie, France
Mots clés / Keywords Scoring rule, Consistency, Collective Ranking, Committee, Paradox, Impartial Culture
Classification-JEL : D70, D71
Abstract We know since the works of Gehrlein and Fishburn (1980, 1981), Fishburn (1981) and Saari (1987, 1988, 1990) that, the collective rankings of scoring rules are not stable when some alternatives are dropped from the set of alternatives. However, in the literature, attention has been mainly devoted to the relationship between pairwise majority vote and scoring rules rankings. In this paper, we focus on the relationships between four-candidate and three-candidate rankings. More precisely, given a collective ranking over a set of four candidates, we determine under the impartial culture condition, the probability of each of the six possible rankings to occur when one candidate is dropped. As a consequence, we derive from our computations, the likelihood of two paradoxes of committee elections, the Leaving Member paradox (Staring, 1986) and of the Prior Successor Paradox which occur when an elected candidate steps down from a two-member committee.
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  • Social Comparison and Peer effects with Heterogeneous Ability
Creation-Date août-14
Auteur /Author Aurélie BONEIN, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Mots clés / Keywords Heterogeneous ability, Gift-exchange game, Social comparison, Peer effect, Reciprocity
Classification-JEL : C91, D03, J24, J31, J82
Abstract Whether and how the observability of a coworker’s effort influences an employer’s wage decisions and workers’ effort decisions is a central issue for labor organizations. We conduct an experiment using a three-person gift-exchange game to investigate this matter in the context of wage transparency and heterogeneous abilities. We find that showing a coworker’s effort increases both wages and the difference in wages between two heterogeneously skilled workers when the more able worker is observed. The knowledge of a coworker’s effort increases the level of reciprocity exhibited by observed workers (peer effects), whereas it reduces that exhibited by workers who are observers. Overall, displaying coworker’s effort has a beneficial effect on reciprocity. Regardless of their ability, workers exert levels of effort that are positively related to those of their coworkers. This strategic complementarity of efforts is partially explained by inequity aversion.
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  • Labor Share and development
Creation-Date juin-14
Auteur /Author Elsa ORGIAZZI, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Paul MAAREK, University of Cergy-Pontoise - THEMA UMR CNRS 8184, France
Mots clés / Keywords Development, Labor Share, Matching frictions
Classification-JEL : E25, J42, O17
Abstract We highlight a U-shaped relationship between development and the labor share of in- come. We exploit the within dimension of a panel dataset for the wage bill and value added in the manufacturing sector for developing countries. Data is available at the aggregate man- ufacturing level and also at the disaggregate level for 28 manufacturing subsectors. We show that the U-shaped pattern of the labor share that we observe at the aggregate level is also observed at the subsector level suggesting it does not correspond to reallocation forces across sectors that occur during the development process. Our theory emphasizes the role of firms’ monopsony power when labor market has frictions in a dual labor market in which modern, high productivity firms coexist with traditional, low productivity firms. At earlier stages of development, productivity gains are not compensated by wage increases, as most of workers’ outside opportunities depend on the low productivity traditional sector. At later stages, the labor share increases as a result of wage competition in the modern sector.
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  • Récents enseignements de la théorie des réseaux en faveur de la politique et du management des clusters
Creation-Date mai-14
Auteur /Author Raphaël Suire, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Jérôme Vicente, PACTE-CNRS, Sciences-Po Grenoble
Mots clés / Keywords Network theories, cluster policy, cluster management
Classification-JEL : B52, D85, O33, R11, R12
Abstract After an abundant literature on the crucial role of cluster development for innovation and growth in knowledge-based economies, cluster policies have been recently and increasingly called into question in the aftermath of several empirical evidences. Our aim is to show that, in spite of this growing scepticism, new opportunities for cluster policy and collective management exist. They require moving their focus from the “connecting people” one best way that gets through the whole of cluster policy guidelines to more surgical and targeted incentives for R&D collaborations, as well as renewed coordination mechanisms, which favour a set of particular network failures along the life cycle of clusters.
Lien / download 201409.pdf

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  • Stability pact and risk of pro-cyclical fiscal policy in Economic and Monetary Union countries : the case of UEMOA
Creation-Date nov-13
Revision-Date 41760
Auteur /Author Mamadou Diop, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Mots clés / Keywords Politique budgétaire procyclique, UEMOA (WAEMU), Pacte de convergence et de stabilité, Solde budgétaire de base, Politique budgétaire contracyclique
Classification-JEL : E6, C5
Abstract In December 1999, the WAEMU countries have adopted the Pact of Convergence, Stability, Growth and Solidarity which states in its corrective arm, the basic fiscal balance, relative to nominal GDP, must be balanced. Implying that the presence of an unexpected adverse economic conditions, governments have a choice between respecting the fiscal criterion of the Covenant and not to support economic activity or stimulate economic activity through public spending and not meet the key criteria of the pact. This article’s objective is to highlight the failures of the fiscal rule cannot be a lever action of public authorities and the consequences if it does not take into account the state of the economy. Two types of fiscal policies can be distinguished according to the economic situation : procyclical policy changing in the same direction as the business cycle and countercyclical fiscal policy that seeks to minimize fluctuations in economic conditions.
Lien / download 201408.pdf

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  • What Diversification of Trade Matters for Economic Growth of Developing Countries ?
Creation-Date avr-14
Auteur /Author Fabien Rondeau, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Nolwenn Roudaut, IREA - University of South Britanny, France
Mots clés / Keywords Trade, Diversification, Growth, Extensive Margin
Classification-JEL : F14, F43, O11
Abstract This paper underlines the influence of trade diversification on GDP per capita growth. Using methodologies developed by Brenton and Newfarmer (2007) and Amurgo-Pacheco and Pierola (2008), we breakdown exports of 64 developing countries into intensive margin (old traded flows), extensive margin by new partners (geographic diversification) and extensive margin by new products (product diversification). Estimations of the augmented Solow model by system-GMM for the period 1990-2009, first confirm that trade diversification has a positive e↵ect on growth. However, this positive e↵ect of diversification tends to decrease with the level of GDP per capita. Finally, the e↵ect of product diversification is twice as large as the e↵ect of geographic diversification : to implement economic growth, developing countries should extend exports of new products rather than exports to new partners.
Lien / download 201407.pdf

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  • Digital files dealers and prohibition in the context of the French 3 strikes (HADOPI) law
Creation-Date avr-14
Auteur /Author Sylvain Dejean, LR-MOS, University of La Rochelle, France
Auteur /Author Raphaël Suire, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Mots clés / Keywords HADOPI, social network, piracy, prohibition, offline swapping
Classification-JEL :
Abstract Illegal digital file consumption is widely believed to influence sales of cultural goods. Online piracy is now regulated and prohibited in some countries, especially in France, where HADOPI is a legal authority in charge of Peer-­‐to-­‐Peer (P2P) protocol monitoring. We claim that prohibitions on digital markets share some characteristics of other criminal activities such as those of the drug market. Prohibition of a good or service can lead to the emergence of a black market embedded in a social network. Based on an original and representative 2012 French survey, we show that such a social and offline organisation is observed. Indeed, offline swapping is now the largest way to exchange digital files. We show that offline swapping is embedded in a hierarchical social network where different behaviours are observed. On one hand, there are wholesalers of digital files who provide more than they receive from this offline network and maintain online downloading activity through P2P technology. On the other hand, there are also the “simple” consumers who consume only from offline swapping and never provide files to others. They never use monitored P2P technology because HADOPI acts as a deterrent. Our econometric analysis suggest that this “fear” of HADOPI plays a significant role in structuring this offline swapping network, as the position in the swapping network is driven by the feeling of being threatened by HADOPI.
Lien / download 201406.pdf

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  • Open Source, Dual Licensing and Software Competition
Creation-Date mars-14
Auteur /Author Éric Darmon, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Dominique Torre, Open Source, Dual Licensing and Software Competition
Mots clés / Keywords dual licensing, hybrid business model, software distribution strategy, open sourc, spillover -
Classification-JEL : D23, D42, L86
Abstract In this paper, we investigate the distribution strategy of a software publisher. The user adoption context is characterized by uncertainty about quality (experience good)and heterogeneous piracy costs. Users can purchase or get unauthorized/illegal copies (digital piracy) of the software during two periods (or not adopt at all). Between these two periods, users can acquire information through word-of-mouth. To maximize pro-t, the publisher needs to decide about price, quality and level of monitoring of piracy. We show that the software publisher can pro-t from accommodation a certain level of piracy of the product. We add to the literature by explicitly considering the opportunity for the publisher to cheat about future price and monitoring levels (misleading announcements). This strategy that is falsely permissive towards piracy, can sometimes appear more pro-table. However, when the degree of sophistication of user expectations about the publisher’s strategy increases, only a strategy that is permissive (with respect to piracy) with non misleading announcements remains robust.
Lien / download 201405.pdf

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  • Publisher’s announcements and piracy-monitoring devices in software adoption
Creation-Date mars-14
Auteur /Author Éric Darmon, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Alexandra Rufini, CREDEG CNRS, Université Nice Sophia-Antipolis, France
Auteur /Author Dominique Torre, CREDEG CNRS, Université Nice Sophia-Antipolis, France
Mots clés / Keywords software distribution strategy, piracy, experience good, misleading announcements
Classification-JEL : D43, D83, K42, L15
Abstract In this paper, we investigate the distribution strategy of a software publisher. The user adoption context is characterized by uncertainty about quality (experience good)and heterogeneous piracy costs. Users can purchase or get unauthorized/illegal copies (digital piracy) of the software during two periods (or not adopt at all). Between these two periods, users can acquire information through word-of-mouth. To maximize pro-t, the publisher needs to decide about price, quality and level of monitoring of piracy. We show that the software publisher can pro-t from accommodation a certain level of piracy of the product. We add to the literature by explicitly considering the opportunity for the publisher to cheat about future price and monitoring levels (misleading announcements). This strategy that is falsely permissive towards piracy, can sometimes appear more pro-table. However, when the degree of sophistication of user expectations about the publisher’s strategy increases, only a strategy that is permissive (with respect to piracy) with non misleading announcements remains robust.
Lien / download 201404.pdf

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  • Private or Public Law Enforcement ? The Case of Digital Piracy Policies with Non-monitored Illegal Behaviors
Creation-Date mars-14
Auteur /Author Éric Darmon, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Thomas Le Texier, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Mots clés / Keywords copyright infringement, law enforcement, digital piracy, illegal file-sharing, illegal behavior deterrence
Classification-JEL : D23, D78, K42
Abstract In the case of digital piracy should rights be publicly or privately enforced ? The emergence of large-scale anti-piracy laws and the existence of non-monitored illegal channels raise important issues for the design of digital anti-piracy policies. In this paper, we study the impact of these two enforcement settings (public vs. private) in the presence of an illegal non-monitored outside option for users. Taking account of market outcomes, we show that in both cases, the optimal strategies of the legal seller and the monitoring authority leads to rejection of the outside option out while accommodating to the presence of illegal monitored channels. Compared to private enforcement, public enforcement generates higher monitoring levels and lower price levels. Public enforcement also generates greater (legal) welfare. However, we identify potential conflict of interests between the legal seller and the social planner when the efficiency of non monitored networks is low. We provide some insights into the role of supply side anti-piracy policies.
Lien / download 201403.pdf

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  • Soft Information and Default Prediction in Cooperative and Social Banks
Creation-Date févr-14
Auteur /Author Simon Cornée, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, and CERMi, France
Mots clés / Keywords Relationship Lending, Soft Information, Credit Rating, Cooperative and Social Banking
Classification-JEL : G21, L22, M21, P13
Abstract In this paper, to begin with, we define soft information as qualitative, subjective information produced by banks through the establishment of long-term lending relationships. We then highlight the importance of soft information for cooperative and social banks in the screening, pricing and monitoring of their borrowers as a result of their institutional features (governance, values, etc.) and the specificities of their clientele. We finally emphasise the value of qualitative (economic, social and/or environmental) factors stemming from the production of soft information in predicting credit default events.
Lien / download 201402.pdf

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  • Graduated Response Policy and the Behavior of Digital Pirates : Evidence from the French Three-strike (Hadopi) Law
Creation-Date janv-14
Auteur /Author Michael Arnold, Department of Economics, University of Delaware, US
Auteur /Author Éric Darmon, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Sylvain Dejean,LR-MOS, University of La Rochelle, France
Auteur /Author Thierry Pénard, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1 & University of Delaware
Mots clés / Keywords
Classification-JEL :
Abstract Most developed countries have tried to restrain digital piracy by strengthening laws against copyright infringement. In 2009, France implemented the Hadopi law. Under this law individuals receive a warning the first two times they are detected illegally sharing content through peer to peer (P2P) networks. Legal action is only taken when a third violation is detected. We analyze the impact of this law on individual behavior. Our theoretical model of illegal behavior under a graduated response law predicts that the perceived probability of detection has no impact on the decision to initially engage in digital piracy, but may reduce the intensity of illegal file sharing by those who do pirate. We test the theory using survey data from French Internet users. Our econometric results indicate that the law has no substantial deterrent e-ect. In addition, we find evidence that individuals who are better informed about the law and piracy alternatives substitute away from monitored P2P networks and illegally access content through unmonitored channels.
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