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Année 2013

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Working papers - documents de travail du CREM}}

 

 Année 2013 <a id="Année 2013"></a>

  • 2013-44 - Daniel Danau, Annalisa Vinella
    From fixed to state-dependent duration in public-private contracts
  • 2013-43 - Marianne Lumeau, David Masclet, Thierry Pénard
    Reputation and Social (Dis)approval in Feedback Mechanisms : An Experimental study
  • 2013-42 - Gérard Cliquet, Christine Gonzalez, Élodie Huré, Karine Picot-Coupey
    Validation d’un modèle d’intention de magasiner avec le smartphone : implications pour les concepteurs de services mobiles
  • 2013-41 - Gabin Langevin, Pascaline Vincent
    National Identity and Immigrants’ Assimilation in France
  • 2013-40 - Christine Gonzalez, Élodie Huré, Karine Picot-Coupey
    Mobile application value for consumers
  • 2013-39 - Thierry Pénard, Mourad Zeroukhi
    Open Source Software Subsidies and Network Compatibility in a Mixed Duopoly
  • 2013-38 - Mathieu Bunel, Elisabeth Tovar
    Simuler les politiques locales favorisant l’accessibilité à l’emploi
  • 2013-37 - Mathieu Bunel, Emilia Ene, Yannick L’Horty, Pascale Petit
    Discrimination based on place of residence and access to employment
  • 2013-36 - Joan Crespo, Raphaël Suire, Jérôme Vicente
    Network structural properties for cluster long run dynamics. Evidence from collaborative R&D networks in the European mobile phone industry
  • 2013-35 - Paul Amadieu, Karine Picot-Coupey, Jean-Laurent Viviani
    Organizational choices and financial performance : the case of company-owned stores, franchisee-owned stores and stores-within-a-store among French fashion retailers
  • 2013-34 - Marie-Estelle Binet, Fabrizio Carlevaro, Michel Paul
    La demande d’eau potable à La Réunion : Estimation à partir de données d’enquête
  • 2013-33 - Rafik Abdesselam, Jean Bonnet, Patricia Renou-Maissant
    Typology of the French regional development : revealing the refugee/Schumpeter effects in new-firms startups
  • 2013-32 - Mathilde Aubry, Jean Bonnet, Patricia Renou-Maissant
    Cycle économique et comportement entrepreneurial sur données régionales françaises
  • 2013-31 - Aurélien Baillon, Han Bleichrodt, Umut Keskin, Olivier L’Haridon, Chen Li
    Learning under ambiguity : An experiment using initial public offerings on a stock market
  • 2013-30 - Mohammed Abdellaoui, Han Bleichrodt, Olivier L’Haridon, Dennie Van Dolder
    Source-Dependence of Utility and Loss Aversion : A Critical Test of Ambiguity Models
  • 2013-29 - Laurent Denant-Boèmont, Enrico Diecidue, Olivier L’Haridon
    Patience and Time Consistency in Collective Decisions
  • 2013-28 - Aurélie Bonein, Laurent Denant-Boèmont
    Self-Control, Commitment and Peer Pressure : A Laboratory Experiment
  • 2013-27 - Gabin Langevin, David Masclet, Fabien Moizeau, Emmanuel Peterle
    Educational Attainment, Wages and Employment of Second-Generation Immigrants in France
  • 2013-26 - Amélie Artis, Simon Cornée
    Transformation informationnelle, certification et intermédiation financière : le cas de la banque solidaire
  • 2013-25 - Gaëtan Stephan
    La nature des fluctuations du PIB réel et du chômage dans quatre grands pays européens : Une approche par composantes inobservées
  • 2013-24 - Hermann Donfouet, P. Wilner Jeanty, Éric Malin
    A Spatial Dynamic Panel Analysis of Corruption
  • 2013-23 - Laurent Denant-Boèmont, Olivier L’Haridon
    La rationalité à l’épreuve de l’économie comportementale
  • 2013-22 - Nicolas Jacquemet, Isabelle Vialle, Olivier L’Haridon
    Marché du travail, évaluation et économie expérimentale
  • 2013-21 - Arthur E. Attema, Werner B.F. Brouwer, Olivier L’Haridon
    A quantification of prospect theory in the health domain
  • 2013-20 - Mohammed Abdellaoui, Olivier l’Haridon, Corina Paraschiv
    Do Couples Discount Future Consequences Less than Individuals ?
  • 2013-19 - Yves Soulabail
    La genèse de l’hypermarché : est-il vraiment français d’origine ?
  • 2013-18 - Hermann Donfouet, P. Wilner Jeanty, Éric Malin
    A Spatial Dynamic Panel Analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve in European Countries
  • 2013-17 - Henri Busson
    « Spatial Inequalities and Expectations : The Role of Heterogeneity in Krugman’s Model »
  • 2013-16 - Simon Cornée, David Masclet
    « Long-Term Relationships, Group lending and Peer Sanctioning in Microfinance : New Experimental Evidence »
  • 2013-15 - Fabien Moizeau
    « Dynamics of Social Norms in the City »
  • 2013-14 - Claire Chambolle, Clémence Christin, Guy Meunier
    « Optimal production channel for private labels : Too much or too little innovation ? »
  • 2013-13 - Jean-Sébastien Pentecôte, Jean-Christophe Poutineau, Fabien Rondeau
    « Trade Integration and Business Cycle Synchronization in the EMU : the Negative Effect of New Trade Flows »
  • 2013-12 - Marie-Estelle Binet, François Facchini
    « Determinants of Entrepreneurship in French Regions : The Role of Spatial Heterogeneity »
  • 2013-11 - Ahmed Doghmi, Abderrahmane Ziad
    « Nash Implementation in Private Good Economies with Single-Plateaued Preferences »
  • 2013-10 - Sylvie Cieply
    « Do bankers ration more credit ? »
  • 2013-09 - Jean Bonnet, Sylvie Cieply, Marcus Dejardin
    « Credit rationing or overlending:Who is right ? »
  • 2013-08 - Raphaël Suire
    « Innovation, espaces de co‐working et tiers-lieux : entre conformisme et créativité »
  • 2013-07 - Mohammad Movahedi, Olivier Gaussens
    « Les effets de l’exportation sur l’innovation et la productivité  : Analyse empirique sur un échantillon de PMI »
  • 2013-06 - Nidhaleddine Ben Cheikh
    « Nonlinear Mechanism of the Exchange Rate Pass-Through : Does Business Cycle Matter ? »
  • 2013-05 - Moussa Diaby, Hélène Ferrer, Fabrice Valognes
    « A Social Choice Approach to Primary Resource Management : The rubber tree Case in Africa »
  • 2013-04 - Mathilde Aubry, Jean Bonnet, Patricia Renou-Maissant
    Business cycle and entrepreneurial behavior using French regional data
  • 2013-03 - Samir Sbabou, Hatem Smaoui, Abderrahmane Ziad
    « Jeux de congestion finis à choix unique : Théorie, Equilibres, Applications -Calculs et Complexités- »
  • 2013-02 - Fabio Padovano, Ronald Wintrobe
    « Theocracy is just another Form of Dictatorship : Theory and Evidence from the Papal Regimes »
  • 2013-01 - Alexandra Litsa, Jean-François Maguet
    « The College Choice Problem with Priorities »

     


    Working papers 2013 - documents de travail du CREM}}

     


  • From fixed to state-dependent duration in public-private contracts
Creation-Date déc-13
Revision-Date janv-15
Auteur /Author Daniel Danau, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, CREM CNRS UMR 6211, France
Auteur /Author Annalisa Vinella, Università degli Studi di Bari « Aldo Moro », Italy
Mots clés / Keywords Fixed-term contract ; state-dependent duration ; limited commitment ; renegotiation ; public-private partnerships
Classification-JEL : D82 ; H57 ; H81
Abstract A government delegates a build-operate-transfer project to a private firm. At the contracting stage, the operating cost is unknown. The firm can increase the likelihood of facing a low cost (the good state) by exerting effort when building the infrastructure. Once this is in place, the firm learns the true cost and begins to operate. Under limited commitment, either the firm or the government may renege on the contract. Within this context, we explore how well a contract with a state-dependent duration performs, as compared to the more standard fixed-term contract. Under full commitment, the efficient allocation is decentralized, whether the contractual term is fixed or state-dependent. Under limited commitment, in situations where break-up of the partnership is little costly for the government, the efficient allocation can be decentralized only if it is stipulated that the duration of the contract will be longer in the good state than in the bad state. This result is at odds with the prescription of the literature on « flexible-term » contracts, which recommends a longer contractual length when the operating conditions are unfavourable.
Lien / download 201344.pdf

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  • Reputation and Social (Dis)approval in Feedback Mechanisms : An Experimental study
    "
Creation-Date déc-13
Auteur /Author Marianne Lumeau, University of Paris 13, CEPN and Labex ICCA, France
Auteur /Author David Masclet, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, Université de Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Thierry Pénard, Université de Rennes 1, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France
Mots clés / Keywords Reputation, (dis)approval, Experiment, Trust Game
Classification-JEL :
Abstract Several studies have highlighted the role of feedback mechanisms in the success of electronic marketplaces. In this current experiment, we attempt to isolate experimentally the role of reputation and social (dis)approval associated to ratings using a trust game experiment with the opportunity to rate one’s partner (Keser, 2003 ; Masclet and Penard, 2012). For this purpose we compare two experimental feedback systems that differ in the information that is publically available to participants. In a first feedback system, individuals’ rating profiles are public whereas in the second feedback system this information is private. Our findings indicate that both private and public ratings improve cooperation. However, we observe that private feedbacks are less efficient in enhancing trust and trustworthiness than public systems. This is mainly due to fact that fewer ratings are assigned in the private feedback system than in the public system. Altogether these findings suggest that, even if social (dis)approval matters, publicly observed feedback remains crucial to induce honest behaviors and improve efficiency on markets characterized by imperfect information.
Lien / download 201343.pdf

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  • Validation d’un modèle d’intention de magasiner avec le smartphone : implications pour les concepteurs de services mobiles
    "
Creation-Date déc-13
Auteur /Author Gérard Cliquet, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, IGR-IAE, Université de Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Christine Gonzalez, IUT de Montpellier, Montpellier Recherche en Management, France
Auteur /Author Élodie Huré, ESC Rennes School of Business, France
Auteur /Author Karine Picot-Coupey, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, IGR-IAE, Université de Rennes 1, France
Mots clés / Keywords commerce électronique mobile, m-magasinage, smartphone, ubiquité, valeur utilitaire, valeur hédonique
Classification-JEL :
Abstract Le commerce électronique connaît un nouveau mode de développement à travers la forte croissance du smartphone parmi les consommateurs. Un certain nombre de modèles d’adoption ont été proposés dont beaucoup reposent sur le téléphone mobile en général. Cet article vise, dans un premier temps, à cerner les déterminants de l’adoption du smartphone comme moyen d’accompagnement du consommateur dans son processus de magasinage, et dans un second temps, à concevoir un modèle d’intention d’utiliser le smartphone pendant ce processus. A cet effet, un modèle de type PLS (Partial Least Square) a été validé en fonction de l’intention par le consommateur d’utiliser le smartphone en vue du magasinage dit mobile ou m-magasinage. Ce modèle distingue les déterminants de la valeur utilitaire (ubiquité et maîtrise de l’outil par le consommateur) et ceux de la valeur hédonique (plaisir perçu). Les résultats mettent donc en avant l’ubiquité et la valeur hédonique ce qui n’était fait que partiellement dans les modèles précédents. Les entreprises conceptrices des services mobiles doivent donc tenir compte de la capacité des usagers à les maîtriser en toutes circonstances de préférence en jouant sur le côté ludique sans pour autant sacrifier la valeur utilitaire que représente cette innovation pour le consommateur.
Lien / download 201342.pdf

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  • National Identity and Immigrants’ Assimilation in France
Creation-Date déc-13
Auteur /Author Gabin Langevin, Université de Rennes 1, CREM CNRS UMR 6211, France
Auteur /Author Pascaline Vincent, Université de Rennes 1, CREM CNRS UMR 6211, France
Mots clés / Keywords ethnicity, ethnic identity, first and second generation immigrants, integration, assimilation
Classification-JEL : J15, D63, Z13
Abstract Determination and changes of immigrants’ identity resulting from intercultural contacts impact their socio-economic integration. To precisely assess individuals’ identity, we propose a continuous index which aims to overcome interpretation troubles faced by usual measures of ethnic identity. Then, we investigate the determinants of immigrants’ ethnic identity in France. We compare our composite and continuous index exhibiting individuals’ assimilation with a usual measure of ethnic identity – the national identity (« I feel French » dummy). We underline the importance of some sociodemographic characteristics in ethnic identity formation and detail immigrants’ assimilation in France. We are thus able to show that cultural assimilation and national identity do not always coincide. It seems that the further the origin (in cultural terms), the higher the national identity, but the lower the assimilation. We also present evidence of second generations’ identity convergence to natives’ one, either in terms of national identity (almost total commitment) or assimilation.
Lien / download 201341.pdf

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  • Mobile application value for consumers
Creation-Date déc-13
Auteur /Author Christine Gonzalez, Université de Montpellier 2, Montpellier Recherche en Management, France
Auteur /Author Élodie Huré, ESC Rennes School of Business, France
Auteur /Author Karine Picot-Coupey, University of Rennes 1 (IGR-IAE), CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France
Mots clés / Keywords consumer value, shopping experience, mobile applications
Classification-JEL :
Abstract A mobile application is an additional touchpoint that could enrich the relationship between consumers and retailers, if these latter understand how a mobile application usage is valued by the formers. This study aims to investigate the consumer value of mobile applications. It builds upon the literature on mobile services value and derives empirical findings from 30 semi-structured interviews of smartphone users, analysed with a content analysis assisted with the NVivo software. Grounded in a hierarchical multidimensional structure, the results indicate that the highest-order value of a mobile application is a synchronicity value enabling the consumer to get at the right time, the right place and in the right situation the right mix of value dimensions among the four following dimensions : situational, utilitarian, hedonic and social value. The results also show four outcomes of this consumer value of a mobile application : attitude toward the brand, omnichannel behaviour, word-of-mouth, future use of the application.
Lien / download 201340.pdf

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  • Open Source Software Subsidies and Network Compatibility in a Mixed Duopoly
Creation-Date nov-13
Auteur /Author Thierry Pénard, University of Rennes 1, CREM CNRS UMR 6211 and IDEC
Auteur /Author Mourad Zeroukhi, Foundation of the University of Rennes 1, CREM CNRS UMR 6211 and IDEC
Mots clés / Keywords Open source software, Public subsidy, Network compatibility
Classification-JEL : L11, L15, L17, L38
Abstract For many applications, open source software (OSS) can offer a high-quality alternative to proprietary software (e.g. Linux, Apache, Android,...). But even if OSS is usually free of charge, its installation and use require some skills. Should the government intervene to promote the diffusion of OSS and provide some learning or financial support to potential adopters ? This paper examines whether public subsidies towards open source software is socially desirable and how the extent of compatibility between open source software and proprietary software can influence the amount of subsidies. We consider a mixed duopoly model in which a proprietary software (PS) company competes with an open source software (OSS) community. Users are heterogeneous in their ability to use OSS, and their utility depends on the number of users who have adopted the same software or a compatible software (existence of network externalities). Four situations are distinguished : full compatibility between OSS and PS, full incompatibility, and one-way compatibility (either only OSS or PS is compatible). We show that if the government only takes care of consumer surplus, public subsidies are welfare-enhancing. But the optimal level of subsidies is larger with full compatibility and PS compatibility than full incompatibility and OSS compatibility. These results suggest that government policy towards OSS must be conditional to the degree of compatibility between PS and OSS.
Lien / download 201339.pdf

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  • Simuler les politiques locales favorisant l’accessibilité à l’emploi
Creation-Date nov-13
Auteur /Author Mathieu Bunel, University of Caen Basse Normandie, CREM CNRS UMR 6211 and TEPP (FR CNRS n°3435)
Auteur /Author Elisabeth Tovar, University of Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense and EconomiX (UMR CNRS 7235)
Mots clés / Keywords accès local à l’emploi, données géo-référencées, GIS, Île-de-France, microsimulation, politiques de l’emploi, spatial mismatch
Classification-JEL : R11, J61
Abstract Cet article présente le modèle SIGMAP (schémas et indicateurs géolocalisés issus de microsimulations appliquées aux politiques publiques) qui permet de caractériser et d’identifier les différences d’accès à l’emploi d’une population donnée en tenant compte des écarts d’employabilité, de congestion, des effets de frontières et de compétition entre les zones géographiques. Nous utilisons cet outil pour simuler et comparer les effets de quatre types de politiques publiques locales : développement des emplois locaux, de l’employabilité, de la mobilité et de la relocalisation des travailleurs.
Lien / download 201338.pdf

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  • Discrimination based on place of residence and access to employment
Creation-Date sept-13
Auteur /Author Mathieu Bunel, University of Caen Basse Normandie, CREM CNRS UMR 6211 and TEPP (FR CNRS n°3435)
Auteur /Author Emilia Ene, University of Paris-Est Marne la Vallée, ERUDITE and TEPP (FR CNRS n°3435)
Auteur /Author Yannick L’horty, University of Paris-Est Marne la Vallée, ERUDITE and TEPP (FR CNRS n°3435)
Auteur /Author Pascale Petit, Université d’Evry Val d’Essonne, EPEE and TEPP (FR CNRS n°3435)
Mots clés / Keywords access to employment, discrimination, testing, neighbourhood effects, experiments
Classification-JEL : C81, C93, J15, J71
Abstract The purpose of this study is to assess the degree of employment discrimination against young people in the Ile-de-France region according to their place of residence by considering several spatial scales in order to measure the effect of the reputation of the administrative department or county (specifically Paris and Seine-Saint-Denis), the town or municipality, and of the local neighborhood. The evaluation is carried outusing experimental testing-type data that we developed following a protocol that allows us toexamine the specific effects associated with each of these three spatial scales on access to employment, as well as their combined effects. We are interested in discrimination regarding two specific occupations within the restaurant/catering industry, namely waiters and cooks, and we consider the impact of two levels of qualification. For each of these profiles, we constructed six fictional candidacies consisting of young men who were similar with the exception of the testing feature which differentiates them, namely their place of residence. Between October 2011 and February 2012, we studied 2,988 candidacies that were submitted in response to 498 job offers posted in the Ile-de-France region. This study consists of a statistical and econometric analysis of the responses that we obtained to these applications.
Lien / download 201337.pdf

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  • Network structural properties for cluster long run dynamics. Evidence from collaborative R&D networks in the European mobile phone industry
Creation-Date nov-13
Auteur /Author Joan Crespo, LEREPS, University of Toulouse
Auteur /Author Raphaël Suire, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Jérôme Vicente, PACTE-CNRS, Sciences-Po Grenoble
Mots clés / Keywords
Classification-JEL : D85, L63, O33, R11
Abstract In a recent literature, the structural properties of knowledge networks have been pointed out as a critical factor for cluster structural changes and long run dynamics. Mixing evolutionary economic geography and network-based approach of clusters, this contribution aims at capturing and discussing the particular influence of hierarchy (degree distribution) and assortativity (degree correlation) in the innovative capabilities of clusters along the industry life cycle. We test our propositions in the field of the mobile phone industry in Europe from 1988 to 2008. We use EPO PATSTAT and OECD REGPAT to capture cluster trends, and R&D relations from European Framework Programs to capture knowledge networks and their evolving structural properties. Our findings provide new insights to understand the organization of clusters over time in order to perform along the industry life cycle
Lien / download 201336.pdf

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  • Organizational choices and financial performance : the case of company-owned stores, franchisee-owned stores and stores-within-a-store among French fashion retailers
Creation-Date nov-13
Auteur /Author Paul Amadieu, University of Montpellier 1’, Economic and Social Administration, Montpellier
Auteur /Author Karine Picot-Coupey, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, IGR-IAE Rennes, France
Auteur /Author Jean-Laurent Viviani, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, IGR-IAE Rennes, France
Mots clés / Keywords Organizational form, financial performance, plural form, combined form, store-within-a-store, franchised store, company-owned store
Classification-JEL :
Abstract This paper deals with the governance and financial performance issues in the context of French Fashion retail companies. In this study, we analyze the influence of the organizational choices on the financial performance at the network level. We consider three forms used in isolation (company-owned stores, franchisee-owned stores and stores-within-a-store), three dually-organized forms (dual forms mixing two of the three forms) as well as a combined form associating the three ones. We study a sample of mostly privately-held French retail companies from the fashion sector (n= 170), using two criteria of performance - profit margin ratio and return on assets. The results show that none of the purely or dual forms tends to generate better financial performance than any other, even though descriptive statistics exhibit important differences in terms of performance among organizational forms. The results highlight that networks combining company-ownership, franchising and stores-within-a-store generate better financial performance, up to a certain point.
Lien / download 201335.pdf

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  • La demande d’eau potable à La Réunion : Estimation à partir de données d’’enquête
Creation-Date sept-13
Auteur /Author Marie-Estelle Binet, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Fabrizio Carlevaro, Département de sciences économiques (DESEC), Université de Genève
Auteur /Author Michel Paul, CEMOI, Université de la Réunion
Mots clés / Keywords Residential water demand, Increasing pricing, Expenditure systems, Survey data, Imputation of missing data, Instrumental variables
Classification-JEL : Q25 - D12 - C51
Abstract In this paper, we estimate a residential water demand function for the reunion island, a French overseas territory which experiences, despite its tropical climate, a lot of stress on this resource. We develop specifications of linear and non linear expenditure systems, taking into account the increasing block rate schedule current in the island. This modelling allows differentiating within the total residential water consumption a component independent of prices and household income, called committed consumption, and a variable part which can be influenced by a relevant water pricing policy. Using survey data collected on a sample of households, our empirical results reveal the importance of committed consumption and of outdoor uses of water. The expected drops in water consumption generated by socially acceptable rate changes appear therefore limited and it is advisable to complement pricing policies with other measures, such as information campaigns focusing the outdoor uses of water.
Lien / download 201334.pdf

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  • Typology of the French regional development : revealing the refugee/Schumpeter effects in new-firms startups
Creation-Date oct-13
Auteur /Author Rafik Abdesselam, COACTIS, Université Lumière Lyon 2
Auteur /Author Jean Bonnet, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, UFR SEG, Normandie Université
Auteur /Author Patricia Renou-Maissant, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, UFR SEG, Normandie Université
Mots clés / Keywords New firm formation, Business cycle, Schumpeter effect, refugee effect, data analysis methods, panel data
Classification-JEL : L26, E32, R11, C23, C38
Abstract We study the relationships between unemployment rate and new-firm startups rate in France using a quarterly data basis over the 1993-2011 period. At the national level we identify that the refugee effect explains the dynamics of entrepreneurship in France over the period 2000-2011. New French firms are mostly set up for necessity motives. At the regional level data analysis methods allow to obtain different classes of regions that represent different type of developments. For each of these classes we are able to identify the existence of refugee/Schumpeter effects both in the short-run and in the long-run.
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  • Cycle économique et comportement entrepreneurial sur données régionales françaises
Creation-Date oct-13
Auteur /Author Mathilde Aubry, EM Normandie, Métis Research Department
Auteur /Author Jean Bonnet, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, UFR SEG, Normandie Université
Auteur /Author Patricia Renou-Maissant, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, UFR SEG, Normandie Université
Mots clés / Keywords Business cycle, “Entrepreneurship capital”, New firm formation, Schumpeter effect, Refugee effect
Classification-JEL : L26, E32, R11
Abstract "- In French : Dans cet article, nous étudions les liens existants entre les créations d’entreprises, le PIB et le taux de chômage en France à partir de données régionales sur la période 1993-2011. Les interactions sont analysées tant à court terme qu’à long terme sous une double dimension : régionale et nationale. Les fluctuations du PIB représentent un indicateur avancé des créations de nouvelles entreprises au niveau national mais cet effet disparaît au niveau régional. Les créations d’entreprises et le taux de chômage se sont révélés étroitement liés aussi bien à court terme qu’à long terme et ont permis de mettre en évidence la présence des effets refugee et Schumpeter. Dans la majorité des régions françaises l’effet refugee domine à court terme : une augmentation du taux de chômage se traduit par une augmentation du nombre des créations d’entreprises. En France les créations d’entreprises sont donc principalement impulsées par des motifs de nécessité.
’- In English : In this paper, we study the links between new-firm startups, growth domestic product (GDP) and unemployment rate in France using a quarterly data basis over the 1993-2011 period. Interactions are analyzed, in the short and long run, in two main dimensions : the regional and the national dimensions. Fluctuations in GDP are an early indicator of the new-firm startups at the national level but this effect disappears at the regional level. Unemployment rates and new-firm startups are closely linked and so in the short-run as well as in the long-run and show evidence of the presence of the refugee’s effect and the Schumpeter’s effect. In most of the regions, the refugee’s effect seems to be dominant : the increase of the unemployment rate leads to an increase in the entrepreneurial activity. In France new-firm startups are mainly driven by necessity motives."
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  • Learning under ambiguity : An experiment using initial public offerings on a stock market
Creation-Date août-13
Auteur /Author Aurélien Baillon, Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR) - Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), the Netherlands
Auteur /Author Han Bleichrodt, Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR) - Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), the Netherlands
Auteur /Author Umut Keskin, Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR) - Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), the Netherlands
Auteur /Author Olivier L’Haridon, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211 and CREGHEC, France
Auteur /Author Chen Li, Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR) - Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), the Netherlands
Mots clés / Keywords ambiguity, learning, updating, neo-additive weighting
Classification-JEL : D81
Abstract This paper studies the effect of learning new information on decision under uncertainty.Using ambiguity models, we show the effect of learning on beliefs and ambiguity attitudes. We develop a new method to correct beliefs for ambiguity attitudes and decompose ambiguity attitudes into pessimism (capturing ambiguity aversion) and likelihood insensitivity. We apply our method in an experiment using initial public offerings (IPOs) on the New York Stock Exchange. IPOs provide a natural decision context in which no prior information on returns is available. We found that likelihood insensitivity decreased with information, but pessimism was unaffected. Subjects moved in the direction of expected utility with more information, but significant deviations remained. Subjective probabilities,corrected for ambiguity attitudes, were well calibrated and close to market data.
Lien / download 201331.pdf

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  • Source-Dependence of Utility and Loss Aversion : A Critical Test of Ambiguity Models
Creation-Date juil-13
Auteur /Author Mohammed Abdellaoui, HEC Paris and GREGHEC CNRS, France
Auteur /Author Han Bleichrodt, Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR) - Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), the Netherlands
Auteur /Author Olivier L’Haridon, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211 and CREGHEC, France
Auteur /Author Dennie Van Dolder, Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR) - Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), the Netherlands
Mots clés / Keywords prospect theory, loss aversion, utility for gains and losses, probability distortion, decision analysis, risk aversion
Classification-JEL :
Abstract This paper tests whether utility is the same for risk and for uncertainty. This test is critical for models that capture ambiguity aversion through a difference in event weighting between risk and uncertainty, like the multiple priors models and prospect theory. We present a new method to measure utility and loss aversion under uncertainty without the need to introduce simplifying parametric assumptions. Our method extends Wakker and Deneffe’s (1996) trade‐off method by allowing for standard sequences that include gains, losses, and the reference point. It provides an efficient way to measure loss aversion and a useful tool for practical applications of ambiguity models. We could not reject the hypothesis that utility and loss aversion were the same for risk and uncertainty, suggesting that utility primarily reflects attitudes towards outcomes. Utility was S‐shaped, concave for gains and convex for losses and there was substantial loss aversion. Our findings support models that explain ambiguity aversion through a difference in event weighting and suggest that descriptive ambiguity models should allow for reference‐dependence of utility.
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  • Patience and Time Consistency in Collective Decisions
Creation-Date sept-13
Auteur /Author Laurent Denant-Boèmont, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France
Auteur /Author Enrico Diecidue, INSEAD, Fontainebleau, France
Auteur /Author Olivier L’Haridon, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211 and CREGHEC, France
Mots clés / Keywords
Classification-JEL :
Abstract We present new evidence from the lab on the outcomes resulting from collective and individual decisions over time. We combined static and longitudinal methods to test four conditions on individual and collective time preferences : impatience, stationarity, age independence, and dynamic consistency. The collective decision process was designed to favor coordination through initial communication over voting intentions. Our main results are the following. First, individuals were impatient and deviated from consistent behavior. On the other hand, groups made patient and highly consistent decisions. Our voting mechanism helped the groups to converge and make stable and dynamically consistent decisions.
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  • Self-Control, Commitment and Peer Pressure : A Laboratory Experiment
Creation-Date sept-13
Auteur /Author Aurélie Bonein, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France
Auteur /Author Laurent Denant-Boèmont, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France
Mots clés / Keywords Self-control, temptation, commitment, willpower, laboratory experiment, peer pressure
Classification-JEL : C91, C92, D63
Abstract This paper focuses on the relationship between individual self-control and peer pressure. To this end, we implement a laboratory experiment that proceeds in two parts. The first part involves an individual real-effort task in which subjects may commit themselves to achieve a certain level of performance while being tempted by an alternative recreational activity. The second part consists of bargaining in a power-to-take game in which previously earned revenues are at stake. Experimental treatments represent variations in the available information given to peers regarding previous individual behavior. The results show that many subjects commit them-selves strongly and that future revelation of commitment decisions induces subjects to increase the credible components of commitment decisions. Past individual be-haviors also play a role in bargaining behavior : (i) partners who have committed themselves benefit from both lower take and destruction rates, and (ii) partners who have succumbed to temptation suffer from both higher take and destruction rates.
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  • Educational Attainment, Wages and Employment of Second-Generation Immigrants in France
Creation-Date sept-13
Auteur /Author Gabin Langevin, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France
Auteur /Author David Masclet, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211 and CIRANO, France
Auteur /Author Fabien Moizeau, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211 and IUF, France
Auteur /Author David Peterle, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France
Mots clés / Keywords labor-market discrimination, second-generation immigrants, educational attainment, family background, decomposition methods
Classification-JEL : I2, J15, J24, J41
Abstract We use data from the Trajectoires et Origines survey to analyze the labor-market outcomes of both second-generation immigrants and their French native counterparts. Second-generation immigrants have on average a lower probability of employment and lower wages than French natives. We find however considerable differences between second-generation immigrants depending on their origin : while those originating from Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa and Turkey are less likely to be employed and receive lower wages than French natives, second-generation immigrants with Asian or Southern- and Eastern-European origins do not differ significantly from their French native counterparts. The employment gap between French natives and second-generation immigrants is mainly explained by differences in their education ; education is also an important determinant of the ethnic wage gap. Finally we show that these differences in educational attainment are mainly explained by family background. Although the role of discrimination cannot be denied, our findings do point out the importance of family background in explaining lifelong ethnic inequalities.
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  • Transformation informationnelle, certification et intermédiation financière : le cas de la banque solidaire
Creation-Date juil-13
Auteur /Author Amélie Artis, PACTE, Sciences Po Grenoble, Université de Grenoble, France
Auteur /Author Simon Cornée, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211 et CERMi, France
Mots clés / Keywords Intermédiation financière ; banque solidaire ; information quantitative ; information qualitative ; processus d’octroi crédit ; niveaux hiérarchiques
Classification-JEL : G21, L23, D8
Abstract L’information est au cœur du processus d’intermédiation financière. Pourtant, la manière dont les décisionnaires de la banque utilisent et interprètent l’information dans le processus d’octroi de crédit demeure une boîte noire. A partir d’une analyse statistique textuelle conduite sur les avis préalables au comité des engagements, qui concernent 52 dossiers de crédit extraits d’une banque solidaire française, cet article examine le processus de transformation informationnelle et de certification qui incombe à tout intermédiaire financier. Les banques solidaires constituent un terrain fertile pour une telle étude, car les processus que nous examinons y sont encore plus complexes que dans les banques conventionnelles, du fait de leur mission d’inclusion financière de projets atypiques et opaques sur le plan informationnel. Nos résultats montrent comment la banque solidaire étudiée collecte du savoir spécifique sur chacun de ses débiteurs (inputs informationnels qualitatifs) qu’elle transforme ensuite en outputs informationnels publics qui obéissent aux normes quantitatives du secteur financier. En filigrane de ce processus de transformation informationnel figurent les prérogatives des différents niveaux hiérarchiques impliqués dans le processus d’octroi de crédit.
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  • La nature des fluctuations du PIB réel et du chômage dans quatre grands pays européens : Une approche par composantes inobservées
Creation-Date juil-13
Auteur /Author Gaëtan Stephan, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211
Mots clés / Keywords loi d’Okun, modèle à composantes inobservées corrélées
Classification-JEL : C32, E32
Abstract Cet article décompose les fluctuations du PIB réel et du taux de chômage entre chocs nominaux et chocs de productivité. A partir de quatre grands pays européens (Allemagne, France, Italie et Royaume-Uni), nous estimons sur données trimestrielles de 1970 à 2011 un modèle à composantes inobservées corrélées comparable à celui utilisé par Sinclair (2009). Cette modélisation permet de manière simultanée de décomposer nos séries en une tendance et un cycle mais également d’estimer une relation d’Okun par les différentes corrélations reliant les séries. Nos résultats indiquent que les mouvements du PIB réel et du chômage sont dominés par les mouvements de la tendance essentiellement en Allemagne et au Royaume-Uni. En France et en Italie, les chocs nominaux demeurent importants pour comprendre les fluctuations des deux séries. Cette décomposition entre chocs nominaux et chocs de productivité se reflète également dans le coefficient d’Okun qui apparaît non significatif en Allemagne mais proche de sa valeur traditionnelle dans les deux pays latins. Nous montrons également que les mouvements à court terme du PIB réel et du chômage sont étroitement liés à leurs tendances de long terme. Nos résultats demeurent robustes à l’utilisation d’autres spécifications introduisant un changement structurel et à des estimations n’incluant pas la ``Grande Récession’’.
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  • A Spatial Dynamic Panel Analysis of Corruption
Creation-Date juil-13
Auteur /Author Hermann Donfouet, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211
Auteur /Author P. Wilner Jeanty, Kinder Institute for Urban Research & Hobby Center for the Study of Texas Rice University
Auteur /Author Éric Malin, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211
Mots clés / Keywords Corruption ; spatial dynamic panel
Classification-JEL : C21, C23, K42, O11
Abstract Previous works on the determinants of corruption seldom addressed cross-border spillover of corruption in cross-country panel studies. In this paper, we report evidence of spatial spillover of corruption by means of spatial dynamic panel model. The results confirm that perceived levels of corruption at the country level are statistically and positively related to those in neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the findings also suggest that the parameters estimates derived from the spatial dynamic panel are more precise compared to the system GMM
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  • La rationalité à l’épreuve de l’économie comportementale
Creation-Date juin-13
Auteur /Author Laurent Denant-Boèmont, CREM CNRS UMR 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Olivier l’Haridon, CREM CNRS UMR 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Mots clés / Keywords rationalité, économie comportementale, décisions, interactions sociales, théorie des jeux
Classification-JEL : D90
Abstract Ces trente dernières années ont connu un formidable développement d’un nouveau champ de l’analyse économique, l’économie comportementale. Initiée et fondée en partie sur les méthodes de l’économie expérimentale, ce nouveau champ disciplinaire a profondément renouvelé la vision des décisions des agents économiques et celle du fonctionnement des marchés. Cet article propose un éclairage critique sur le renouvellement de la vision de la rationalité des agents économiques proposé par l’économie comportementale. Dans les faits, la démonstration de l’existence de déviations par rapport aux représentations traditionnelles de la rationalité est le résultat du croisement de deux littératures. La première concerne les décisions dans l’incertain. La seconde s’intéresse aux décisions prises en interactions avec d’autres agents économiques. Le cadre d’étude est celui des jeux, des marchés et des décisions de groupe. En regard du premier ensemble de travaux, la question de la rationalité se porte sur la réalité d’une norme de comportement purement individuelle, liée à l’introspection. Le contexte de choix apparaît comme primordial aux décisions prises par les individus et cette porosité aux circonstances semble être la manifestation la plus saillante de la rationalité limitée. Pour le second ensemble de travaux, les résultats sont nettement plus ambigus et peuvent laisser perplexe. Dans certaines situations d’interaction stratégique ou de marché, la rationalité collective observée est proche de celle prédite par la théorie microéconomique traditionnelle. Mais dans d’autres, il s’avère que des éléments absents de la modélisation économique s’avèrent essentiels : préférences sociales, émotions, processus d’apprentissage. Cet apparent paradoxe montre l’importance d’enrichir le domaine même de la rationalité afin d’améliorer le pouvoir prédictif des théories économiques des comportements et des marchés.
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  • Marché du travail, évaluation et économie expérimentale
Creation-Date juin-13
Auteur /Author Nicolas Jacquemet, BETA University of Lorraine and PSE
Auteur /Author Olivier l’Haridon, CREM CNRS UMR 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Isabelle Vialle, CREM CNRS UMR 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Mots clés / Keywords économie experimentale, prospection d’emploi, évaluations, appariements
Classification-JEL :
Abstract L’économie comportementale et l’économie expérimentale ont connu un formidable essor au cours des dernières décennies. L’objectif de cet article est de présenter, au travers d’un cadre général d’analyse et d’exemples d’applications, l’intérêt de l’économie expérimentale pour l’évaluation des politiques publiques sur le marché du travail. L’économie expérimentale et les méthodes alternatives existantes apparaissent alors comme des outils d’analyse complémentaires dans l’étude des politiques publiques. En particulier, les résultats issus de l’économie expérimentale apportent un éclairage critique sur les modèles théoriques sous- jacents à l’étude des politiques du marché du travail.
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  • A quantification of prospect theory in the health domain
Creation-Date juin-13
Auteur /Author Werner B.F. Brouwer, iBMG/iMTA, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Auteur /Author Arthur E. Attema, iBMG/iMTA, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Auteur /Author Olivier l’Haridon, CREM CNRS UMR 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Mots clés / Keywords prospect theory, life duration, QALY
Classification-JEL : D90
Abstract It is well-known that expected utility (EU) has empirical deficiencies. Prospect theory (PT) has developed as an alternative with more descriptive validity. However, PT’s full function had not yet been quantified in the health domain. This paper is therefore the first to simultaneously measure utility of life duration, probability weighting, and loss aversion in the health domain. We observe loss aversion and risk aversion for gains and losses, which for gains can be explained by probabilistic pessimism. Utility for gains is almost linear. For losses, we find less weighting of probability 1/2 and concave utility. This contrasts with the common finding of convex utility for monetary losses. However, PT was proposed to explain choices among lotteries involving small outcomes. Life years are arguably not ‘small’ and need not generate convex utility for losses. Moreover, utility of life duration reflects discounting, causing concave utility. These results are a first step in fitting non-EU models for health-related decisions.
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  • Do Couples Discount Future Consequences Less than Individuals ?
Creation-Date juin-13
Auteur /Author Mohammed Abdellaoui, HEC-Paris & GREGHEC-CNRS, France
Auteur /Author Olivier l’Haridon, CREM CNRS UMR 6211, University of Rennes 1, France
Auteur /Author Corina Paraschiv, HEC-Paris & GREGHEC-CNRS, France
Mots clés / Keywords Household decision-making, time preferences, hyperbolic discounting
Classification-JEL :
Abstract This paper examines couple time preferences by reporting the results of an ex- periment based on the elicitation of nearest equivalent values. Decisions involving delayed outcomes are studied for each of the two partners individually and for the couple. This allows for a direct comparison between couple behavior and individual partners’ behavior in choices over time. We use Fishburn and Rubinstein’s (1982) discounted utility model and infer measurements of utility and discounting at both the individual and the couple level. While utility is found to be similar for cou- ples and individuals, we observe that, in decision over time, couples discount future amounts of money less than individuals. This result suggests that making joint decisions significantly reduces revealed impatience. Moreover, we show that cou- ple time preferences cannot be considered as a mix of the individual preferences of each of the two partners. Taken together, these findings suggest that determinants of intertemporal decisions made by couples, such as financial decisions, should be considered as distinct from determinants of individual decisions.
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  • La genèse de l’hypermarché : est-il vraiment français d’origine ?
Creation-Date juin-13
Auteur /Author Yves Soulabail, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211
Mots clés / Keywords Carrefour, cycle de vie du commerce, France, hypermarché, roue de la distribution
Classification-JEL :
Abstract "L’hypermarché fut présenté en 1963 comme une combinaison innovante des principales caractéristiques du commerce moderne de l’époque. Ce papier décrit l’histoire de ce concept initial et comment il a traversé l’Atlantique nord pour se diffuser en Europe.
Généralement associé dans ces formulations initiales à la France, nous constatons que les premières volontés d’introduction sont antérieures et plutôt le fait de la Belgique. Nous analysons ce phénomène de « nationalisation », ou plus exactement d’appropriation nationale, du concept par le leader mondial du secteur : Carrefour.
Abstract In English : The “French” hypermarket was presented in 1963 as an innovative combination of the most prominent characteristics of modern retailing of that time. This paper describes the story of this retail concept and how it crossed the Atlantic Ocean before being diffused throughout Europe. It is by and large known that it was firstly implemented in France, but we show that it was actually done in Belgium. We analyze this phenomenon of national appropriation of this concept by Carrefour.
"
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  • A Spatial Dynamic Panel Analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve in European Countries
Creation-Date juin-13
Auteur /Author Hermann Donfouet, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211
Auteur /Author P. Wilner Jeanty, Kinder Institute for Urban Research & Hobby Center for the Study of Texas Rice University
Auteur /Author Éric Malin, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211
Mots clés / Keywords Environmental Kuznets curve, spatial dynamic panel
Classification-JEL : Q56, C21
Abstract Previous studies in the environmental Kuznets curve have overlooked spatial interdependence and this could bias the estimates. This paper therefore addresses the issue of spatial interdependence in the environmental Kuznets curve by using panel data on European countries over the period of 1961-2009. The results obtained from the spatial dynamic panel suggest a significant degree of persistence in the per capita CO2 emissions in European countries over time. Furthermore, it has been found that per capita CO2 emissions in a nearby country lead to a domestic increase in per capita CO2 emissions and overall, the results are robust irrespective of the concept of neighborhood.
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  • Spatial Inequalities and Expectations : The Role of Heterogeneity in Krugman’s Model
Creation-Date juin-13
Auteur /Author Henri Busson, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211
Mots clés / Keywords Economic geography, location choice, equilibrium paths, linear differential systems
Classification-JEL : J61, C62, R12
Abstract Heterogeneity has often changed the results of multiplicity and stability of equilibriums. In this article, we extend a paper written by Krugman by introducing two different types of workers with different productivity. This framework enables us to understand the weight of history in spatial inequalities, which are becoming more and more apparent in the united states and in europe. Krugman results don’t holds and we find that even with high interest rates, history could be reversed and expectations could lead to a different equilibriums.
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  • Long-Term Relationships, Group lending and Peer Sanctioning in Microfinance : New Experimental Evidence
Creation-Date mai-13
Auteur /Author Simon Cornée, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211, and CERMi
Auteur /Author David Masclet, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211 and CIRANO (Montréal)
Mots clés / Keywords Experimental Economics, Credit Market, Microfinance, Peer Lending
Classification-JEL : C72, C91, G20, G21
Abstract Microfinance is generally associated with high repayment rates. However, it is not clear whether the success of microfinance results only from the use of group lending or is also due to other mechanisms such as peer sanctioning or dynamic incentives induced by long-term relationships that are typically included in microfinance contracts. In this paper, we contribute to the existing literature by investigating the respective effects of each of these components of microfinance. This is done by running a laboratory experiment that allows us to isolate long-term relationships from the two other components (i.e. group lending and peer monitoring). Our experiment indicates that peer-lending dimension of microcredit in absence of peer-sanctioning mechanism is not sufficient to mitigate ex ante and ex post moral hazards. In sharp contrast, we find that individualized long-term credit relationships perform significantly better than group-lending mechanisms with or without peer sanctioning.
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  • Dynamics of Social Norms in the City
Creation-Date avr-13
Auteur /Author Fabien Moizeau, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211, Condorcet Center and Institut Universitaire de France (IUF)
Mots clés / Keywords
Classification-JEL :
Abstract We study how in a city either opposite social norms remain or a particular code of behavior spreads and ultimately prevails. We develop a multicommunity model with overlapping generations. When young, an individual chooses the level of educational effort. The crucial feature is that her decision is influenced by peers living in the area who favor either a social norm valuing education or a social norm discrediting education. When an adult, an individual who cares about her offspring’s expected income chooses the family’s location. Endogenous location leads to different patterns of social norms in the city. We identify two types of urban equilibrium : a culturally-balanced city where social norms are distributed evenly among urban areas and the rate of education is the same in each urban area and a culturally-divided city where urban areas oppose on their prevailing social norm and exhibit different rates of education. We then study the dynamics of social norms. We show that there are multiple long-run patterns of social norms. A particular steady state is achieved depending on the initial distribution of social norms support in the population. Finally, we show that the public policies promoting social integration can lead in the long run to a population unanimously discrediting education and getting less education than letting the culturally-divided city arise.
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  • Optimal production channel for private labels : Too much or too little innovation ?
Creation-Date avr-13
Auteur /Author Claire Chambolle, INRA-UR1303 ALISS and Department of Economics Ecole Polytechnique, France
Auteur /Author Clémence Christin, Normandie University, Caen, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration - CREM-CNRS UMR6211, France
Auteur /Author Guy Meunier, INRA -UR1303 ALISS and Department of Economics Ecole Polytechnique, France
Mots clés / Keywords Private label, vertical relations, buyer power, innovation
Classification-JEL : L14, L15, L42
Abstract We analyze the impact of the private label production channel on innovation. A retailer may either choose a competitive fringe or rely on a brand manufacturer to produce its private label. The trade-o between the two channels is a choice between too much or too little innovation, i.e. quality investment, on the private label. On the one hand, when choosing the competitive fringe, the retailer over-invests to increase its buyer power. On the other hand, when the brand manufacturer is selected, a hold-up e ect leads to under-investment. In addition, selecting the brand manufacturer may create economies of scale that spur innovation.
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  • Trade Integration and Business Cycle Synchronization in the EMU : the Negative Effect of New Trade Flows
Creation-Date avr-13
Auteur /Author Jean-Sébastien Pentecôte, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France
Auteur /Author Jean-Christophe Poutineau, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France
Auteur /Author Fabien Rondeau, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France
Mots clés / Keywords Trade Integration, New Trade Flows, Business Cycles, Synchronization, European Monetary Union
Classification-JEL : F14 ; F15 ; F41 ; F44
Abstract This paper questions the impact of trade integration on business cycle synchronization in the EMU by distinguishing increase of existing trade flows (the intensive margin) and creation of new trade flows (the extensive margin). Using a DSGE model, we find that synchronization is weakened when new firms are allowed to export in response to productivity gains. Using disaggregated data over 1995–2007 for the 10 founding members of the EMU and consistently with our model, we find that trade intensity has a positive direct effect while new trade flows have a negative effect on business cycle synchronization. Furthermore, new flows play essentially an indirect role by intensifying specialization and explain 60% of the overall effect of trade intensity and specialization on synchronization.
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  • Determinants of Entrepreneurship in French Regions : The Role of Spatial Heterogeneity
Creation-Date avr-13
Auteur /Author Marie-Estelle BINET,University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France
Auteur /Author François Facchini, University of Paris-Sud, Faculty of Jean Monnet (France)
Mots clés / Keywords Creation of enterprises, spatial heterogeneity, dynamic panel data, refugee effect, public R&D.
Classification-JEL : M13, O18, J21
Abstract This paper deals with the determinants of enterprise creation in the 22 French regions from 1994 to 2003. We then estimate a dynamic panel data model which allows spatial heterogeneity to be modelled and which is compared with a specification without spatial heterogeneity. The estimation results show that an appropriate consideration of spatial heterogeneity can lead to new insights. The results show : 1) that the Holcombe effect and the income effect have a statistically significant and positive impact for all regions ; 2) that the age of the population and the size of the firms have the same negative effects for all regions with the exception of Ile-de-France ; 3) that at the threshold of 10%, the refugee effect only concerns 10 regions out of 22 ; 4) that the effect of public R&D remains insignificant for 17 of the 22 regions, but becomes statistically significant in five regions and has a positive effect in three regions only, these being those which exhibit the highest per capita public R&D expenditure levels. Globally, Anselin’s (1990) hypothesis, according to which the presence of spatial heterogeneity casts doubt upon the generalizability of theories in regional science, is thus in part confirmed.
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  • Nash Implementation in Private Good Economies with Single-Plateaued Preferences
Creation-Date avr-13
Auteur /Author Ahmed Doghmiab, National Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics ofRabat, Morocco
Auteur /Author Abderrahmane Ziad, Normandie University, Caen, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration - CREM CNRS UMR6211, France
Mots clés / Keywords Nash implementation ; Private good economies ; Single-plateaued preferences
Classification-JEL : C72 ; D71
Abstract In this paper we explore the problem of Nash implementation providing new sufficient conditions called I-monotonicity and I-weak no-veto power. Firstly, we show that these conditions together with unanimity are sufficient for the implementation of social choice correspondences (SCCs) in Nash equilibria. Secondly, we prove that, in the domain of the private good economies with single-plateaued preferences, a solution of the problem of fair division is Nash implementable if and only if it satisfies Maskin monotonicity. We provide examples of SCCs satisfying or not Maskin monotonicity.
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  • Do bankers ration more credit ?
Creation-Date avr-13
Auteur /Author Sylvie Cieply, Normandie University, Caen, Institut Banque-Assurance - CREM CNRS UMR6211, France
Mots clés / Keywords Credit rationing, Collaterals, Covenants
Classification-JEL : G21, D82
Abstract Has credit rationing increased in France for twelve years ? The hypothesis of an increase in credit rationing to French firms is very often postponed by observers. This article looks for an answer by comparing the results of surveys carried out in 2000 and 20012 on a sample of bankers specialized in the financing of firms. The results given by the new survey confirm the fundamental result of a strong credit rationing (total refusal) which is limited to new customers although weak credit rationing (restrictive quantity) is used to regulate the credit market as soon as a relationship between bank and firm is established. However we show that both strong and weak credit rationing are significantly less used by bankers and that they more frequently introduce collaterals and covenants when they give credit.
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  • Credit rationing or overlending:Who is right ?
Creation-Date mars-13
Auteur /Author Jean Bonnet, Normandie University, Caen, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration - CREM CNRS UMR6211, France
Auteur /Author Sylvie Cieply, Normandie University, Caen, Institut Banque-Assurance - CREM CNRS UMR6211, France
Auteur /Author Marcus Dejardin, Université Catholique de Louvain and University of Namur, CERPE, Belgium
Mots clés / Keywords Credit Rationing, Overlending, Asymmetric information, New business.
Classification-JEL : L26, M13, D82, G21
Abstract There is a widespread belief in both academic literature and policy circles that small firms are unable to obtain sufficient banking loans. This idea finds a strong theoretical support in credit rationing theory, as initiated by Stiglitz and Weiss (1981). However, this is vigorously challenged by De Meza and Webb (1987, 2000) suggesting contrastingly that firms can benefit from an excess of credit. This empirical article is the first to test these two theories using data on the access to credit for new French businesses during the mid 1990s. Our results show that credit rationing was not highly spread among French new firms. The story described by De Meza and Webb (1987) appears to be a much more realistic model. Finally, we identify factors closely associated with credit rationing and overlending.
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  • Innovation, espaces de co‐working et tiers-lieux : entre conformisme et créativité
Creation-Date janv-13
Auteur /Author Raphaël Suire, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211 - Institute for Digital Economics, Competition and Innovation (IDEC)
Mots clés / Keywords Apprentissage, Auto-sélection, Spécialisation, Processus d’innovation / Learning, Self-selection, Specialization, innovation process
Classification-JEL : Innovation, third-place
Abstract A third‐place (Oldenburg, 1991) is a place, most of time urban place, which is not exactly neither an office nor a home. This place is mainly dedicated to individual social capital building and relational asset production. Bars, cafe, airport or any public or private places with WiFI hot spot are third-­‐places. In the line of this seminal definition, a co-­‐ working place is a third-­‐place with some strong specificities dedicated to entrepreneurship and innovation that we would like to address in this paper.These places have emerged mainly in digital cities or cities with a technological or digital industrial sector. One of the raison d’être of this place is above all to help structuring epistemic community as well as give support to market and social innovation. Especially in France, local initiatives of this sort are burgeoning around “Cantine” (Canteen) and “network of Canteens”2 and the main issue of this chapter is to understand how these local initiatives around co-­‐working places can help territory to enhance their market innovative capabilities and its disruptive and collective innovation potential. Having that in mind we suggest that a co-­‐working place can under specific condition reinforce a conformism lead to lock-­‐in situation whereas creativity and disruptive innovation are maximize under very specific structural configuration. Consequently, we suggest some good local public practices.
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  • Les effets de l’exportation sur l’innovation et la productivité : Analyse empirique sur un échantillon de PMI
Creation-Date janv-13
Auteur /Author Mohammad Movahedi, Normandie University, UNICAEN - CREM CNRS UMR6211
Auteur /Author Olivier Gaussens, Normandie University, UNICAEN - CREM CNRS UMR6211
Mots clés / Keywords Apprentissage, Auto-sélection, Spécialisation, Processus d’innovation / Learning, Self-selection, Specialization, innovation process
Classification-JEL : C14, C35, D22, F12, O31
Abstract "Ce papier concerne l’analyse de l’impact de l’exportation sur la productivité et l’innovation dans les entreprises. L’apport de ce travail réside principalement dans 1) la décomposition de l’effet global de l’exportation sur les performances de l’entreprise en un effet d’apprentissage, un effet d’auto-sélection et un effet de spécialisation, 2) la prise en compte simultanée de la persistance de l’exportation et de son intensité. L’objectif de ce papier est d’évaluer l’impact respectif des trois effets de l’exportation sur la performance des entreprises. Ces effets sont testés dans le cadre d’un modèle récursif à partir d’indicateurs synthétiques de l’output et de l’input d’innovation issus de l’analyse des correspondances multiple (ACM). Cette estimation est réalisée a partir des données d’un échantillon représentatif de 90 PMI de la région Basse-Normandie (France) provenant de l’enquête conduite en 2009-10 dans le cadre du projet IDEIS.
English abstract : This paper presents an analysis of the impact of exporting on productivity and innovation in SMEs. The contribution of this work lies mainly in 1) the decomposition of the overall effect of the export on the firm performance into a learning effect, a self-selection effect and a specialization effect ; and 2) the simultaneous consideration of the both persistence and intensity of export. The primary aim of this paper is to evaluate the respective impact of these three export effects on firm performance. These effects are tested in a recursive model from synthetic indicators of innovation using multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). For this end, we use the data from a representative random sample formed by 90 SMEs of regional of Normandy (France), obtained from the survey conducted in the IDEIS project.

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  • Nonlinear Mechanism of the Exchange Rate Pass-Through : Does Business Cycle Matter ?
Creation-Date janv-13
Auteur /Author Nidhaleddine Ben Cheikh, University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211
Mots clés / Keywords Exchange Rate Pass-Through, Inflation, Smooth Transition Regression
Classification-JEL : C22, E31, F31
Abstract This paper examines the presence of nonlinear mechanism in the exchange rate pass-through (ERPT) to CPI inflation for 12 euro area (EA) countries. Using logistic smooth transition models, we explore the existence of nonlinearity with respect to economic activity along the business cycle. Our results provide a strong evidence of nonlinearity in 6 out of 12 EA countries with significant differences in the degree of ERPT between the periods of expansion and recession. However, we find no clear direction in this regime-dependence of pass-through to business cycle. In some countries, ERPT is higher during expansions than in recessions ; however, in other countries, this result is reversed. These cross-country differences in the nonlinear mechanism of pass-through would have important implications for the design of monetary policy and the control of inflation in the EA context.
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  • A Social Choice Approach to Primary Resource Management : The rubber tree Case in Africa
Creation-Date janv-13
Auteur /Author Moussa Diaby, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM UMR CNRS 6211
Auteur /Author Hélène Ferrer, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM UMR CNRS 6211
Auteur /Author Fabrice Valognes, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM UMR CNRS 6212
Mots clés / Keywords Natural Resource Management, Rubber Tree, Social Choice, Group Decision Making
Classification-JEL :
Abstract We consider in the present paper an original approach to a decision making problem related to the management of a primary resource, namely the rubber tree. By using the social choice theory through the approval voting, we show that it is possible to improve the return of the crop. Hence, by selecting the best varieties to be plant with respect to some environmental constraints, we demonstrate that approval voting can be easily used (opposed to classical operation research methods) by the african rubber tree planters in order to get a plantation at peak performance.
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  • Business cycle and entrepreneurial behavior using French regional data
Creation-Date janv-13
Auteur /Author Mathilde Aubry, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM UMR CNRS 6211
Auteur /Author Jean Bonnet, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM UMR CNRS 6211
Auteur /Author Patricia Renou-Maissant, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM UMR CNRS 6212
Mots clés / Keywords New firm formation, Business cycle, Schumpeter effect, « refugee » effect, panel data
Classification-JEL : L26, E32, R11
Abstract We study the influences of new firms startups on growth in regional and macroeconomic dimensions in France using a quarterly data basis over the 1993-2011 period. We find that fluctuations in GDP are an early indicator of new firm startups. Nevertheless the most important relationships are found between unemployment rate and new firms startups. Entrepreneurship is mainly driven by necessity motives that have consequences upon potential of growth of new firms startups in most of the French regions.
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  • Network effects, Customer Satisfaction and Recommendation on the Mobile Phone Market
Creation-Date janv-13
Auteur /Author Samir Sbabou, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM UMR CNRS 6211
Auteur /Author Hatem Smaoui, CEMOI, Université de la Réunion
Auteur /Author Abderrahmane Ziad, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM UMR CNRS 6211
Mots clés / Keywords Jeux de congestion, Jeux de potentiel, Fonction de potentiel, Équilibre de Nash, Symétrique, Non symétrique, Choix unique, Réseau, Allocation de tâches, Voie d’amélioration, FIP
Classification-JEL : C72
Abstract La première partie propose une revue de littérature sur les jeux de congestions et les jeux de potentiel exact. La deuxième partie traite les jeux de congestion à choix unique dans le cas symétrique et propose une formule simple et pratique permettant de trouver l’ensemble de tous les équilibres de Nash. La troisième partie analyse la famille des jeux de congestion à choix unique non symétriques. Ici l’effet de congestion n’est pas le même sur l’ensemble des joueurs. Lorsqu’il existe seulement deux ressources ou lorsque la partition est exacte (), une preuve constructive est présentée et permet de calculer plus facilement (au moins) un équilibre de Nash, sans faire appel ni aux fonctions de potentiel (Rosenthal, 1973), ni aux mécanismes d’amélioration (Milchtaich, 1996). Enfn, nous examinons la possibilité d’exploiter nos résultats dans certaines applications des jeux de congestion telles que les jeux de congestion réseau et les jeux d’allocation de tâches.
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  • Theocracy is just another Form of Dictatorship : Theory and Evidence from the Papal Regimes
Creation-Date déc-12
Auteur /Author Fabio Padovano, Condorcet Center for Political Economy, University of Rennes 1 and CREM-CNRS UMR 6211, France - DIPES, Università Roma Tre, Italy
Auteur /Author Ronald Wintrobe, University of Western Ontario, USA
Mots clés / Keywords Matching, Dictatorship, Theocracy, Papacy
Classification-JEL : Z12, N83, D79
Abstract This paper tests the explanatory and predictive power of a theory of dictatorship (e.g., Wintrobe 1998, 2007) when applied to the case of theocracy and in particular to the history of the temporal power of the Popes. We consider the behaviour of the Catholic theocracy in the Papal States, as this was a very long lasting theocracy, exposed to many historical shocks that reveal information about the incentives and constraints that characterize it. We use this information to test the explanatory power of the theory of dictatorship, showing that never in the history of the temporal power of the Church have the four categories of dictatorship that the theory foresees (tinpot, tyrant, totalitarian and conceivably timocrat) proven inadequate. Theocracy is just like any other form of dictatorship. Furthermore, we test some of the predictions of the theory of dictatorship about the durability of, and the source of opposition to the various regimes on data about the Papacy. The results appear to support the theory.
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  • The College Choice Problem with Priorities
Creation-Date déc-12
Auteur /Author Alexandra Litsa, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM UMR CNRS 6211
Auteur /Author Jean-François Maguet, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM UMR CNRS 6211
Mots clés / Keywords Matching, Preference, Priority, Coherence, Fairness, Mechanism
Classification-JEL : C78, D03, D47, D63, I20
Abstract In traditional school choice theory, the assignment mechanisms of students to schools suppose preferences for students and priorities for schools. In this paper, interested in the admission of students to colleges, we assume that all agents have priorities over the members of the opposite side. By considering that students have priorities over colleges, we reduce the incoherence and unfairness of assignments in order to respect the best possible students’ educational needs.
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