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Accueil > Séminaires réguliers > Séminaires Caen > Archives

2010-2011

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Les séminaires du CREM à Caen ont lieu salle EG107

de l’UFR Sciences Economiques et de Gestion de Caen, 19 rue Claude Bloch, le lundi à partir de 14h

 


  • Lundi 20 juin 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Ilham Dkhissi
Invité par / invited by Séminaire interne
Directeur de thèse Claire El Moudden
Thème / Subject Economie des retraites
Titre / title Estimation d’une échelle d’équivalence prenant en compte les personnes âgées de 60 ans et plus : Cas du Maroc
Résumé / abstract Au Maroc, la proportion des personnes âgées de 60 ans et plus a atteint 8,1% en 2004. Le vieillissement de la population n’est pas spécifique à ce pays, on le retrouve dans l’ensemble des pays du Maghreb et de manière encore plus avancée en Europe. Il pose cependant de manière prégnante la question du revenu et de la pauvreté des personnes âgées. Si en France la majorité des personnes âgées vivent seule ou dans un établissement pour personnes âgées, au Maroc, la cohabitation intergénérationnelle l’emporte. 52,4% de personnes âgées au Maroc vivent sous le même toit avec deux enfants et plus, la taille moyenne des ménages des personnes âgées étant d’ailleurs relativement élevée (5,8 personnes). Or les échelles d’équivalence (outil précisant le lien entre la consommation d’un ménage et le nombre d’adultes et d’enfants qui le composent, pour un niveau de vie fixé), quand elles sont utilisées dans les analyses du niveau de vie et de la pauvreté au Maroc, sont les mêmes que les échelles Européennes, type échelle d’Oxford. Elles ne prennent pas en compte la présence d’adultes âgés dans le ménage et ne sont pas, de ce fait, adaptées au contexte sociodémographique marocain. Le présent travail vise à estimer des échelles d’équivalence qui permettent de tenir compte de cette cohabitation intergénérationnelle.

  • Lundi 6 juin 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Frank Steffen, University of Liverpool Management School
Invité par / invited by Vincent Merlin
Thème / Subject Voting Paradoxes
Titre / title Voting Paradoxes and the German Electoral System
Co-auteurs/Joint work with Altunbas (Bangor Business School), Matthew Braham (University of Bayreuth)
Résumé / abstract In this paper we analyze the occurrence of a family of five voting paradoxes (Condorcet, More-Preferred-Less-Seats, Condorcet-Winner-Turns-Loser, Condorcet-Loser-Turns-Winner, Ma jority Reversal) in German Federal Elections between 1961 and 2006. The German electoral system is classed as ’mixed-member proportional representation’ (also called ’Personalized Proportional Representation’). Using voter preferences compiled from opinion polls which have taken place close to the the actual electoral days, a method previously employed for similar studies for Denmark and the Netherlands, we only found evidence for the More-Preferred-Less-Seats and the Condorcet-Loser-Turns-Winner paradoxes. These both occurred in the 1972 and 1976 elections. We discuss the importance of these paradoxes for the type of proportional representation that is used in Germany and pay particular attention to whether or not they challenge important constitutional norms such as ’one-man-one-vote’.

  • Lundi 30 mai 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Frédérique Alfonsi, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie
Invité par / invited by Séminaire interne
Thème / Subject Information, Economie numérique
Titre / title Entre information et réputation : le cas de l’économie numérique
Résumé / abstract L’économie numérique renouvelle l’approche traditionnelle de l’information. Ce faisant, elle implique des formes de rationalité différenciées qui permettent d’expliquer les modes de sélection de l’information, favorisant les effets de réputation. Aussi se mettent en place des mécanismes de coordination qui ne sont pas exclusivement marchands.

  • Lundi 23 mai 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Béatrice Rey, Université Lyon 1, ISFA
Invité par / invited by Françoise Bastié
Thème / Subject Choices under risk
Titre / title Benchmark values for higher degree relative risk aversion coefficients
Co-auteurs/Joint work with Michel Denuit, Université catholique de Louvain
Résumé / abstract The existing literature on savings, insurance and portfolio choices under risk has revealed that quite often comparative statics results depend, among other things, upon the values of the coefficients of relative risk aversion and relative prudence. More specifically the benchmark values of these coefficients are respectively 1 and 2. Recently, several papers investigated constraints imposed to the coefficient of relative risk aversion, to the coefficient of relative prudence, as well as to their higher-degree extensions. The present work provides a unified approach to this question based on bivariate stochastic dominance relations, allowing for a better understanding of changes in risk in the multiplicative case.

  • Lundi 23 mai 2011, 13h50-14h10 : Présentation de la Plateforme Universitaire de Données de Caen
Intervenant Cyril Coinaud et Clothilde Lemarchand, Université de Caen
Titre / title Présentation de la Plateforme Universitaire de Données de Caen
Résumé / abstract La Plate-forme universitaire des données de l’université de Caen (PUDC) vise à faciliter l’accès aux grandes enquêtes et données statistiques intéressant les sciences humaines et leur utilisation. Outil de proximité à l’égard des étudiants, enseignants et chercheurs de l’université de Caen Basse-Normandie dans toutes les disciplines des sciences humaines, la PUDC offre ses services dans la recherche de fichiers adaptés aux recherches, les démarches administratives avec le réseau Quetelet et la récupération et l’installation des bases de données. Elle propose un accompagnement méthodologique et des formations adaptées, de la conception des questionnaires jusqu’au traitement statistique.
Lien / download http://www.unicaen.fr/recherche/mrs...
Télécharger la présentation

  • Lundi 9 mai 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Antonio de la Torre Gallegos, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Sevilla
Invité par / invited by Anne-Laure Le Nadant
Thème / Subject Cyclical Analysis, market-timing, Stocks market crisis, economics crisis, correlation
Titre / title Stock Market’s Cycles and Stock Market’s Crisis in International Markets
Co-auteurs/Joint work with Martha Edith Bellini, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Sevilla
Résumé / abstract "With the recent crash of the international stock markets, the awareness of its consequences on the International economy has been latent. Stock market crashes are associated to financial market crises, and economy crises. Analysis of the influence of these crises over the International stock markets and their repercussions can enable stockbrokers and investors to anticipate strategies.
The empirical variables which define a crisis, which are the object of this study, are the maximum drawdown percentage, the duration of the decline, and the recovery time. The analysis of these variables with data obtained from the Spanish, USA, German, and British markets enables the degree of correlation between these crises to be studied, with the aim of providing forecasting.
The characteristics of returns in equity markets are a particularly relevant topic for investors and academics. It is highly worth studying patterns in graphs of prices since their viewing of the graphs often suggests the presence of a cycle in the series. Research into their nature has evolved from a graphical orientation, towards quantitative measures extracted from several models.
Many theories have been developed in an attempt to explain the stock market crashes and the associated cycles. A stock market crash is a situation in which a stock market experiences a sudden and major decline in stock prices, leading to a financial or an economic crisis.
The cycles are characterized as peaks and troughs and the periods between them are classified as expansions (bull phases) and contractions (bear phases).
In the recent literature especially the work of the National Bureau of Economic Research, the study of cycles and crisis in stock markets has received considerable attention as a consequence of the direct applicability of business cycle techniques to identify and characterize commodities prices and stock market cycles.
Many papers have analyzed the bull and bear markets by following the algorithm suggested by Bry and Boschan (1971) currently in use in stock market analysis. In this paper empirical methods are applied, and are characterized by using a set of decision rules that reflect the practical experience gained by analysts. The most famous is the Bry-Bosch method, based on the methodology of the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), and used for the detection of business cycles and, therefore, periods of economic crisis."
Lien / download Stock market’s cycles and stock market’s crisis in international markets (pdf - 20 Ko)

  • Lundi 18 avril 2011, 14h15-15h45 Salle EG 057
Intervenant Elisabeth Tovar U. Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, EconomiX & CEE
Invité par / invited by Matthieu Bunel
Thème / Subject Bien-être capabiliste, disparités socio-spatiales, Île-de-France
Titre / title Well-being Disparities Within the Paris Region. A Capabilist Spatialized Outlook
Co-auteurs/Joint work with Lise Bourdeau-Lepage
Résumé / abstract Les récentes émeutes urbaines qui ont embrasé la France en 2005 ont attiré l’attention sur les déterminants spatiaux du mécontentement spatial. Nous étudions la validation empirique du sentiment collectif d’une très forte augmentation des disparités de bien-être entre les communes franciliennes. Nous fondons notre indicateur de bien-être sur une version spatialisée de l’approche capabiliste de Sen. Celle-ci permet de tenir explicitement compte du rôle joué par la localisation résidentielle sur les réalisations, les opportunités et la liberté de choix des individus. En mobilisant des indicateurs multidimensionnels de pauvreté et à l’aide de l’analyse exploratoire des données spatialisées, nous montrons que le bien-être capabiliste spatialisé a augmenté entre 1999 et 2006. Par ailleurs, nous mettons en évidence un phénomène de rattrapage des les communes les plus favorisées par les communes les plus défavorisées. Cependant, nous mettons également en lumière la forte polarisation forte des niveaux de bien-être les plus faibles sur le territoire francilien. Le fait que cette polarization ait augmenté entre 1999 et 2006 et que certaines des communes les plus défavorisées aient vu leur niveau de bien-être diminuer pendant cette période pourrait expliquer la croyance collective d’une augmentation de la fracture socio-spatiale en Île-de-France.
Lien / download Well-being Disparities Within the Paris Region (pdf - 633 Ko)

  • Lundi 11 avril 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Ashley Piggins, National University of Ireland, Galway
Invité par / invited by Antoinette Baujard
Thème / Subject Social Choice and deliberation
Titre / title A model of deliberative and aggregative democracy
Co-auteurs/Joint work with Juan Perote-Peňa, Universidad Pablo de Olavide de Sevilla
Résumé / abstract We present a model of collective decision making in which voting and deliberation are treated simultaneously. Political theorists argue that public discussion can lead individuals to change their preferences. This aspect of democracy is typically ignored in models of social choice that focus exclusively on voting. In our model, individuals debate in a public forum and potentially revise their preferences in light of deliberation. Once this process is exhausted, a voting rule is applied to aggregate post-deliberation preferences into a social choice. Restricting attention to three alternatives, we identify conditions under which a democracy is truth-revealing in the sense that the deliberation path and the voting rule will always lead to the correct social choice being made, irrespective of the original profile of preferences and size of the electorate (provided the latter is finite). A critical parameter in the model is the persuasion cost. When this is low, a democracy is almost always truth-revealing. When it is high, we have the standard social choice model and truthful revelation is impossible. Moreover, we identify when and only when truthful revelation occurs in an interesting intermediate case.

  • Lundi 4 avril 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Frank Lasch, Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier
Invité par / invited by Jean Bonnet
Thème / Subject Entrepreneurship
Titre / title Entrepreneurship : des déterminants régionaux des créations d’entreprises dans le secteur des ICT aux déterminants de l’entrepreneuriat académique
Résumé / abstract "The study of entrepreneurship lacks a comprehensive framework (Gnyawali & Fogel, 1994) and has an eclectic ‘flavour’ (Freytag & Thurik, 2007 ; Verheul, Wennekers, Audretsch & Thurik, 2002 ; Wennekers, Uhlaner & Thurik, 2002). Authors conduct research on different levels of analysis (individual, organizational and regional) and we observe broadly six themes in literature (Ucbasaran Westhead & Wright, 2001) : Theoretical antecedents, type of entrepreneur, entrepreneurial process, type of organization, outcome, and external environment. This presentation deals with a specific type of high tech entrepreneurship (Information and Communication Technologies, ICT) and focuses on two of the six prominent themes cited above : regional environment and types of entrepreneurs. Understanding the drivers or barriers of new firm formation at a regional level is crucial for the strategic management of regions. But even if a considerable outpouring of literature emphasized the importance of the region as level of analysis for the study of entrepreneurship and location principles in the ‘new’ economy (Scott, 2006), little empirical research is available when it comes to understand regional predictors for new ICT firms. Entrepreneurial opportunities in the ICT sector are synonym with a high risk of failure (Lasch, Le Roy & Yami, 2007). Even if a huge body of literature exists, those studies deal with survival and growth factors (predictors of success) linked to human capital, organizational or environmental issues. Paradoxically, few studies apply sector specific approaches or focus more specifically on the ICT entrepreneur. But empirical findings are crucial to clarify characteristics of entrepreneurs starting their business in the ICT sector, to identify profiles and to build typologies as a base for designing entrepreneurship support programs of local, regional and national governments for individuals engaging entrepreneurship in this sector.
In consequence, we formulate two research questions :
(1) Where does high tech entrepreneurship happen ? - Here we describe and explain regional determinants for new ICT firms.
(2) Who is the high tech entrepreneur ? - Here we present a typology of ICT entrepreneurs and we explore in more detail one of the four types (academic entrepreneur)."
Lien / download High tech entrepreneurship from a regional and individual perspective (pdf - 37 Ko)

  • Lundi 28 mars 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Dirk van de Gaer, KULeuven / CORE
Invité par / invited by Fabrice Valonges
Thème / Subject Equality of opportunity
Titre / title Childrens’ health opportunities and project evaluation : Mexico’s oportunidades program
Co-auteurs/Joint work with Joost Vandenbossche, Ghent University, Jose Luis Figueroa, Ghent University
Résumé / abstract We propose a methodology to evaluate social projects from an (equality of) opportunity perspective by looking at the effect of the program on (parts of) the distribution of outcomes conditional on morally irrelevant characteristics, taken here to be parental education level and indigenous background. The methodology is applied to evaluate the effects of Mexico’s oportunidades program, the world’s largest conditional cash transfer program for poor households, on children’s health outcomes. The evidence shows that the most disadvantaged children, children from indigenous background, tend to benefit from the program. For poor children from non-indigenous background, the evidence is mixed.
Lien / download Children’s health opportunities and project evaluation : Mexico’s oportunidades program (pdf - 645 Ko)

  • Lundi 21 mars 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Lionel Désiage, CEE et Université Paris-Est Marne-La-Vallée
Invité par / invited by Sylvie Cieply
Thème / Subject Entrepreneurship
Titre / title Do Public Subsidies Have an Impact on New Firm Survival ? An Empirical Study with French Data
Co-auteurs/Joint work with Richard Duhautois et Dominique Redor
Résumé / abstract This paper deals with the impact of social contributions and tax cuts (which are considered as operating subsidies) on new firms’ probability of survival and economic performance. We use a rich matched database of French firms that were newly created in 1998 and that include entrepreneurs’ individual characteristics and firm economic and financial variables. We implement propensity score matching models and show that (i) subsidized firms are more likely to survive after the first two years ; (ii) bank loans increase the probability of survival, be they subsidized or not ; and (iii) operating subsidies allow firms to increase their turnover. However, no significant effects of these subsidies on other performance criteria are found.
Lien / download Do Public Subsidies Have an Impact on New Firm Survival ? An Empirical Study with French Data (PDF - 127 Ko)

  • Lundi 14 mars 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant André Lapidus, PHARE, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne
Invité par / invited by Muriel Gilardone
Thème / Subject History of Economic Thought / Hume / Welfare
Titre / title The Possibility of a Welfare Policy in a World of Emotion-Driven Individuals : A Humean Point of View
Résumé / abstract Based on Hume’s major philosophical works and on some of his Essays, this paper discusses the feasibility, from a Humean point of view, of a welfare policy which would aim at promoting the highest individual happiness whereas individual decisions, like individual happiness, are determined not only by allocations of goods, but also by an emotional state. It is shown that both the intertemporal structure of the problem and the role that Hume granted to the ‘calm passion’ allow solving the problem, at least in principle.
Lien / download The Possibility of a Welfare Policy in a World of Emotion-Driven Individuals : A Humean Point of View (PDF - 143 Ko)

  • Lundi 7 mars 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Issofa Moyouwou, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Yaoundé
Invité par / invited by Professeur invité au CREM
Thème / Subject Cooperative game theory
Titre / title The Pareto Principle and the Stability Set
Co-auteurs/Joint work with Nicolas Gabriel Andjiga, ENS, Yaoundé
Résumé / abstract By exhibiting an example, Pongou and als (2008) have shown that the stability set of a simple game, when individual preferences are linear orders, may contain Pareto dominated candidates. This observation is generalized in the present paper by proving that a simple game does not select any Pareto dominated candidate at any profile of linear orders given any set of at least five candidates if and only if it is oligarchic, meaning that there exists a single minimal winning coalition for the game.
Mots-clés / keywords Pareto principle, stability set, oligarchic games
Lien / download The Pareto Principle and the Stability Set (PDF - 162 Ko)

  • Lundi 21 février 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant François Facchini, CES, Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne, Warwick University
Invité par / invited by Jean Bonnet
Thème / Subject Entrepreneurship : L’activité des entrepreneurs dans les régions françaises
Titre / title Regional Entrepreneurship Determinants and Heterogeneous Regional Labor Markets.
Co-auteurs/Joint work with Marie-Estelle Binet, CREM, UMR 6211 CNRS (University of Rennes 1)
Résumé / abstract The aim of this article is to study the regional entrepreneurship determinants in the 22 French regions. Our approach is original because in a first step we estimate the Okun’s coefficients in the 22 French regions over the period 1990-2008 using a spatial regime labor markets, we analyze the regional entrepreneurship determinantsspecification. As results show heterogeneous regional in a spatial regime model including two or three regimes depending on the value of the Okun’s coefficients obtained.
Mots-clés / keywords entrepreneurship, Okun’s law, region, spatial regime model, panel data.

  • Lundi 14 février 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Frédéric Chantreuil , INRA, SMART
et Benoït Tarroux, Université Rennes 1, CREM et IDEP
Invité par / invited by Vincent Merlin
Thème / Subject Income, agriculture - Analyse des effets redistributifs d’une variation des prix
Titre / title Does Prices’ Instability Matter ? Evidence from Latvia
Co-auteurs/Joint work with Benoit Tarroux, Université Rennes 1, CREM -
Guna Salputra, Latvian State Institute of Agrarian Economics
Valda Bratka, Latvian State Institute of Agrarian Economics
Résumé / abstract This paper intends to look at the impacts of the agricultural prices’ instability on Latvian farms’ income, inequality and welfare. Agricultural commodities’ prices have been in the spotlight since they reached their peaks in late 2007. Farmers could have benefit from the resulting worldwide increase in food prices, even though prices increase also caused general rises on the production costs. Therefore, the potential farmers’ benefit is more uncertain. This article aims to give appropriate answer to the following question : does the 2007 peak significantly increase farms’ income inequality and welfare ? The proposed analysis is performed using Latvian FADN data over the three years period 2006-2008, implementing stochastic and inequality dominance criteria and inequality indices to measure income inequality. Furthermore, the statistical robustness is checked for all considered inequality measures. We show that the impact of the agricultural prices peak is not of evidence.
Lien / download Does Prices’ Instability Matter ? Evidence from Latvia (PDF - 490 ko)

  • Lundi 7 février 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Bhaskar Dutta, INRA, SMART
Invité par / invited by Maurice Salles
Thème / Subject Cooperative game theory, social choice theory, political economy
Titre / title Nash Implementation with Partially Honest Players
Co-auteurs/Joint work with Arunava Sen, Indian Statistical Institute
Résumé / abstract We investigate the problem of Nash implementation in the presence of partially honest.individuals. A partially honest player is one who has a strict preference for revealing the true state over lying when truthtelling does not lead to a worse outcome (according to preferences in the true state) than that which obtains when lying. We show that when there are at least three individuals, the presence of even a single partially honest individual (whose identity is not known to the planner) can lead to a dramatic increase in the class of Nash implementable social choice correspondences. In particular, all social choice correspondences satisfying No Veto Power can be implemented. If all individuals are partially honest and if the domain is separable (a condition satisfied in economic environments), then all social choice correspondences can be implemented by a mechanism which does not use integer games. We also provide necessary and sufficient conditions for implementation in the two-person case when there is exactly one partially honest individual and when both individuals are partially honest. We describe some implications of the characterization conditions for the two-person case. Finally, we extend our three or more individual result to the case where there is an individual with anarbitrary small but strictly positive probability of being partially honest.
Lien / download Nash Implementation with Partially Honest (pdf - 207 Ko)

  • Lundi 31 janvier 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Adil Mekboul, UCBN, Dir. Thèse : Abderrhamane Ziad
Invité par / invited by Séminaire interne
Thème / Subject Game theory
Titre / title Perfect Bayesian implementation of Walrasian correspendence
Résumé / abstract L’équilibre général capte l’idée d’échange ou de contrat. En information complète, ce concept existe (sous raisonnables hypothèses), il est Pareto optimal et implementable en équilibre de Nash. Dans la réalité, la plus part des contrats se font dans un contexte d’incertitude. Ainsi, il est normal d’étendre la notion de WE à fin d’intégrer l’aspect d’incertitude. Arrow et Debreu (chapitre7,Theory of Value (1959)) ont proposé l’équilibre d’espérance rationnelle. Ce dernier, dans un cadre économique avec infromation différenciée, n’est pas entièrement Pareto optimal et n’est pas incitatif donc il n’est pas implémentable en équilibre Bayesiens parfait en forme extensive (Glycopantis et al. in Econ Theory 2005). Malgré les propriétés indésirables de l’équilibre d’espérance rationnelle, il est largement utilisé, parce qu’il est une extension de l’idée de l’équilibre de Walras. Etant donnée le rôle central de l’équilibre d’espérance rationnelle dans la théorie économique, il est intéressant de l’étudier encore plus. Afin, de découvrir d’autre propriétés que elles soient attractives ou non. O.Bochet (2007) démontre que la correspondance de Walras, quand les préférences sont représentées par une fonctions d’utilité différentiable, est implémentable en équilibre de Nash parfait en sous-jeu. La question qui s’impose comment ce mécanisme se comportera dans le cadre d’information incomplète ? Sous quelles conditions ce mécanisme continue d’implémenter l’équilibre d’espérance rationnelle restrictif en équilibre Bayésiens parfait sous forme extensive ?

  • Lundi 24 janvier 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Patrice Bougette, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis
Invité par / invited by Jean-Pascal Guironnet
Thème / Subject Organisation industrielle appliquée
Titre / title Vacation’s over ? Looking back on the Pierre et Vacances/Maeva Transaction
Résumé / abstract This paper provides a retrospective study of the 2001 merger between Pierre et Vacances and Maeva, the two largest French holiday companies. First, simulations with data from the merger file indicate that the competition authority made the right decision to condition its approval to a structural merger remedy. The model forecasts significant price increases for tourist residences in the short run. The second part of the analysis consists of confronting the forecast with the actual evolution of prices during the three years after the merger. Despite the required asset divestitures, we find evidence that positive price variations occurred from 2001-2002. However, in the very long term, competitive pressure has been intensified by the entry of real-estate promoters and by the increasing use of the Internet as a new distribution channel
Lien / download Vacations.pdf

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  • Lundi 17 janvier 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Roy souvik,
Invité par / invited by Séminaire interne : Post-doc au CREM, UCBN
Thème / Subject Strategy proof allocation of resources
Titre / title The Structure of Strategy-Proof Random Social Choice Functions over Product Domains and Separable Preferences : The Case of Two Voters
Co-auteurs/Joint work with Shurojit Chatterji : Singapore Management University, Singapore ; Arunava Sen : Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi, India.
Résumé / abstract We characterize the class of dominant-strategy incentive-compatible (or strategy-proof) random social choice functions in the standard multi-dimensional voting model where voter preferences over the various dimensions (or components) are separable when there are two voters. We show that these social choice functions (which we call generalized random dictatorships) are induced by probability distributions on voter sequences of length equal to the number of components. They induce a fixed probability distribution on the product set of voter peaks. The marginal probability distribution over every component is a random dictatorship. Our results generalize the classic random dictatorship result in Gibbard (1977) and also show that the decomposability results for strategy-proof deterministic social choice functions for multi-dimensional models with separable preferences obtained in LeBreton and Sen (1999), do not extend straightforwardly to random social choice functions.
Lien / download The structure of strategy (pdf - 242 Ko)

  • Lundi 10 janvier 2011, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Yannick L’Horty, Université de Paris Est Marne la Vallée, ERUDITE, CEE et TEPP-CNRS
Invité par / invited by Matthieu Bunel
Thème / Subject Méthodes d’expérimentations sociales
Titre / title Evaluation aléatoire et expérimentations sociales
Co-auteurs/Joint work with Pascale Petit, Université d’Evry-Val d’Essonne, EPEE, CEE, et TEPP-CNRS
Résumé / abstract Les méthodes d’évaluation aléatoire ont commencé à être appliquées à de grands programmes sociaux en France depuis 2007, soit plus de quarante ans après les premiers travaux analogues menés aux Etats-Unis. Elles connaissent depuis un développement rapide. Ces méthodes expérimentales consistent à évaluer les effets d’une politique en comparant un groupe test à un groupe témoin, constitués par tirage au sort. Dans cet article dont l’objet est de proposer une introduction à l’application de ces méthodes aux expérimentations sociales, nous soulignons que leurs spécificités ne se réduisent pas (i) au principe de l’assignation aléatoire. Elles ont aussi pour autre singularité qui les distinguent des autres méthodes d’évaluation : ii) la dimension expérimentale du programme évalué, iii) le partenariat particulier qui est organisé entre le chercheur et l’institution expérimentatrice, iv) la conception a priori d’un protocole d’évaluation et d’un système d’observation et de traitement de l’information. Nous montrons que chacune de ces quatre singularités est la source d’un apport particulier de ces méthodes mais a aussi pour contrepartie une limite spécifique qui mérite d’être soulignée.
Lien / download Evaluation aléatoire et expérimentations sociales

  • Lundi 13 décembre 2010, 14h
Intervenant Laurie Bréban, PHARE, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne et ATER à l’UCBN
Invité par / invited by Séminaire interne
Thème / Subject Histoire de la pensée économique, Smith
Titre / title Smith on Happiness : Toward a Gravitational Theory
Résumé / abstract Some commentators have tried to link Smith’s analysis with fundamental results in economics of happiness. These contributions mainly focus on the influence of wealth on happiness (Ashraf, Camerer and Loewenstein, 2005 ;Bruni, 2006 ; Brewer, 2009. However, this connection is far from covering Smith’s considerations about individual happiness and their possible similarities with today’s analysis in economics of happiness.In the Theory of Moral Sentiments, Smith asserts that adverse events depress people’s mind much more below their “ordinary state of happiness” than prosperous ones. However, close to what we call, today, “hedonic adaptations theories”, he views adverse and prosperous events as only short term shocks, so that an individual’s level of happiness tends towards the one of his “ordinary state of happiness”, just as short term market prices tend towards long term natural prices. This paper aims at throwing light on the foundations of Smith’s “gravitational” theory of happiness, on its consequences on an individual’s preferences and also on its implication with regard of the possibility of long-term variations of happiness. The first step leads to establish a link between the idea that individuals adapt to circumstances and the Smithian analysis of individual happiness. The second step consists in putting to the fore the role that Smith grants to sympathy with the impartial spectator in the way back to the “ordinary state of happiness” after deviations produced by prosperous or adverse events. At last, we focus on the decisional consequences that Smith draws from his gravitational theory of happiness, chiefly those which deal with the choice between various permanent situations (for instance, poverty and riches) and their evaluation.
Lien / download Smith on Happiness : Toward a Gravitational Theory

  • Lundi 6 décembre 2010, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Eric Avenel, Crem, Université de Rennes1
Invité par / invited by Vincent Merlin
Thème / Subject Politique de concurrence, relations verticales
Titre / title Upstream capacity constraint and the preservation of monopoly power in private bilateral contracting
Résumé / abstract This article presents a model of private vertical contracting with a capacity constrained monopolistic supplier. I consider ’full capacity beliefs’ that are consistent with an upstream capacity constraint and are ’wary’ when the constraint is tight or production is costless. I show that, facing a capacity constraint, the supplier may preserve its monopoly power in equilibrium. This result stands in sharp contrast to the standard result that the supplier cannot preserve its monopoly power, which holds under the usual implicit assumption of an infinite production capacity.
Lien / download Upstream capacity constraint and the preservation of monopoly power in private bilateral contracting (pdf - 156 Ko)

  • Lundi 29 novembre 2010, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Nicolaus Tideman, Virginia Tech
Invité par / invited by Maurice Salles
Thème / Subject Distribution
Titre / title The Appropriate Treatment of Distribution in Economic Theory
Résumé / abstract Economists have an eclectic collection of mutually inconsistent and unproductive approaches to distributive questions, associated with the names Pareto, Bergson-Samuelson, and Hicks-Kaldor. An alternative moral theory that focuses on respectable bases of claims of rights permits resolution of a number of critical issues in economics. The suggested foundation for addressing distributive questions is the combination of 1) a « left-libertarian » theory of justice that assumes that people have rights to themselves and that all persons have equal rights to natural opportunities and 2) a utilitarian theory of morality that assumes that people should do as much as they can bring themselves to do to make the world a better place. This foundation leads to interesting implications for global poverty, global climate concerns, subsidiarity, communitarian initiatives, provision for less able persons, population pressure, intergenerational equity, intellectual property, the financing of global public goods, and world peace.
Lien / download The Appropriate Treatment of Distribution in Economic Theory (pdf - 124 Ko)

  • Lundi 22 novembre 2010, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Bettina Klaus, Université de Lausanne
Invité par / invited by Vincent Merlin
Thème / Subject Matching
Titre / title Consistency and Population Sensitivity Properties in Marriage and Roommate Markets
Co-auteurs/Joint work with Burak Can, Maastricht University
Résumé / abstract We consider one-to-one matching markets in which agents can either be matched as pairs or remain single. In these so-called roommate markets agents are consumers and resources at the same time. Klaus (2010) introduced two new « population sensitivity » properties that capture the effect newcomers have on incumbent agents : competition sensitivity and resource sensitivity. On various roommate market domains (marriage markets, no odd rings roommate markets, solvable roommate markets), we characterize the core using either of the population sensitivity properties in addition to weak unanimity and consistency. On the domain of all roommate markets, we obtain two associated impossibility results.
Lien / download http://ideas.repec.org/p/lau/crdeep/10.03.html
Lien / download http://ideas.repec.org/p/lau/crdeep/10.08.html

  • Lundi 15 novembre 2010, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant Olivier Gaussens, Crem, UCBN
Invité par / invited by Séminaire interne
Thème / Subject Innovation
Titre / title Efficience du processus d’innovation et défaillance entrepreneuriale : mesure et explication
Co-auteurs/Joint work with R.Hérimalala, UCBN
Résumé / abstract Ce papier s’intéresse à l’évaluation de l’innovation dans les entreprises à partir : i) d’une représentation de l’innovation comme un processus entrepreneurial dans le sens d’un processus de conception piloté par l’entrepreneur pour en garantir l’efficience ; ii) d’une évaluation de l’efficience technique du processus d’innovation individuel dans le cadre de méthodes non-paramétriques type DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) ; iii) d’une explication simultanée de l’intensité et de l’efficience de l’innovation individuelle dans le cadre d’une analyse économétrique ; iv) de données originales tirées d’une enquête spécifique sur l’innovation et l’entreprise dans le cadre du Projet IDEIS (CPER-FEDER).
Lien / download Développement des territoires

  • Lundi 8 novembre 2010, 14h15-15h45
Intervenant François Gardes, PSE, Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne
Invité par / invited by Bernard Franck
Thème / Subject Microéconomie, économétrie appliquée
Titre / title Les conséquences de la volatilité des prix des carburants sur la demande de l’économie française
Résumé / abstract La volatilité récente du prix des carburants a des conséquences tant sur la demande que sur d’autres éléments d’offre de l’économie française. On analyse dans cette étude l’influence de cette volatilité sur la demande des consommateurs de carburant et les conséquences de politique économique qui s’ensuivent. L’ensemble des études est faites sur des données microéconomiques françaises et étrangères. Une nouvelle méthode d’estimation des élasticités-prix sur données d’enquête est proposée.
Lien / download Crem 08-11-2010 carburant.pdf

  • Lundi 18 octobre 2010, 14h15-15h15
Intervenant Philippe Andrade, Crem, Université de Caen, actuellement en détachement à la Banque de France
Invité par / invited by Séminaire interne
Thème / Subject Formation des anticipations macroéconomiques
Titre / title Inattentive professional forecasters
Co-auteurs/Joint work with Hervé Le Bihan (Banque de France)
Résumé / abstract Using the ECB Survey of Professional Forecasters (SPF), we find that forecasters (i) have predictable forecasts errors ; (ii) disagree ; (iii) fail to systematically update their forecasts in the wake of new information and disagree even when updating ; (iv) differ in their frequency of updating and forecasts performances. We argue that the micro data facts are qualitatively in line with recent models in which expectations are formed by inattentive agents. However, building and estimating an expectation model that features two types of inattention, namely sticky information à la Mankiw-Reis and noisy information à la Sims, we cannot quantitatively generate the error and disagreement that are observed in the SPF data. The rejection is mainly due to the fact that professionals’ forecasts are too sluggish compared to the ones our inattention model generates.
Lien / download Inattentive professional forecasters (pdf - 743 Ko)

  • Lundi 11 octobre 2010, 14h15
Intervenant Sébastien Courtin, Crem, UCBN
Invité par / invited by Séminaire interne
Thème / Subject Game theory, Cooperative game, Power index
Titre / title Coalition configuration and share functions
Co-auteurs/Joint work with Nicolas Andjiga
Résumé / abstract Albizuri, Aurrekoetxea and Zarzuelo (2006) defined values for game in which the players are organized into a priori coalition configuration. A coalitional configuration is defined to be a family of coalitions not necessarily disjoint, whose union is the grand coalition. In this paper, we redefine the coalition configuration values by using the concept of share function, as introduced by van der Laan and van den Brink (1998). A share function assigns to every player in a TU-game its share in the worth of the grand coalition. Van den Brink and van der Laan (2002) applied this alternative type of solution to obtain a general class of share function for game with coalition structure, using the concept of the multiplication property of Owen (1977). Moreover, as the concept of share function provides also a natural method to define solutions for games in a configurational structure, we define a general class of share functions for coalition configuration.
Lien / download Coalition configurations and share functions (pdf - 813 Ko)

 

Les séminaires du CREM à Caen ont lieu salle EG107