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Année 2011

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Working papers - documents de travail du CREM}}

 

 Année 2011 <a id="Année 2011"></a> <p></p>

  • 2011-30 - Hermann Pythagore Pierre Donfouet, Pierre-Alexandre Mahieu, P. Wilner Jeanty
    « Dealing with Internal Inconsistency in Double-Bounded Dichotomous Choice : An Application to Community-Based Health Insurance »
  • 2011-29 - Hermann Pythagore Pierre Donfouet, Pierre-Alexandre Mahieu, Eric Malin
    « Using Respondents’ Uncertainty Scores to Mitigate Hypothetical Bias in Community-Based Health Insurance Studies »
  • 2011-28 - Fabio Padovano
    « Causes and Consequences of Bailing out Expectations of Subcentral Governments : Theory and Evidence from the Italian Regions »
  • 2011-27 - Jean Bonnet, Sylvie Cieply, Marcus Dejardin
    « Does the regional dimension matter as regards finance and entrepreneurship ? »
  • 2011-26 - Sylvain Kadohognon Ouattara
    « Incitations à fusionner dans un oligopole mixte asymétrique »
  • 2011-25 - Jean-Sébastien Pentecôte
    « Long-run identifying restrictions on VARs within the AS-AD framework »
  • 2011-24 - Olivier Lharidon, Franck Malherbet
    « Multi-Levels Bargaining and Efficiency in Search Economies »
  • 2011-23 - Mohammad Movahedi, Olivier Gaussens
    « Innovation, productivité et exportation : Y-a-t-il un effet d’auto-sélection consciente ? Une étude empirique sur les PMI de basse-Normandie. »
  • 2011-22 - Marie-Estelle Binet, Younes Ben Zaïd
    « A Seasonal Integration and Cointegration Analysis of Residential Water Demand in Tunisia »
  • 2011-21 - Jean Bonnet, Thomas Brau, Antonia Guijarro Madrid
    « Innovative entrepreneurship as a way to meet professional dissatisfactions »
  • 2011-20 - Marie-Estelle Binet
    « Reconsidering the Demand for Municipal Public Goods Specification : Evidence from French »
  • 2011-19 - Khadidja Benallou, Baghdad Bentahari
    « L’Apprentissage des Collectifs de Travail Structuré par les TIC dans le Domaine des Services Informatiques »
  • 2011-18 - Jean-Pascal Guironnet, Matthieu Bunel
    « Earning Inequalities Between and Within Nests : A Multilevel Modeling Approach Applied to the Case of France »
  • 2011-17 - Jean Bonnet, Nicolas Le Pape, Teresa Nelson
    « Firm start-up strategies and performance in France : Survival and growth »
  • 2011-16 - Olivier Lharidon, Franck Malherbet, Olivier Sébastien-Pérez
    « Does Bargaining Matter in the Small Firm’s Matching Model ? »
  • 2011-15 - Abderrahmane Ziad, Samir Sbabou, Hatem Smaoui
    « Nash equilibria in nonsymmetric singleton congestion games with exact partition »
  • 2011-14 - Abderrahmane Ziad, Samir Sbabou, Hatem Smaoui
    « A formula for Nash equilibria in monotone singleton congestion games »
  • 2011-13 - Abderrahmane Ziad, Samir Sbabou, Hatem Smaoui
    « Nonsymmetric singleton congestion games : case of two resources »
  • 2011-12 - Abderrahmane Ziad, Emmanuelle Taugourdeau
    « Fiscal Policies and Trade : On the existence of Nash equilibria »
  • 2011-11 - Fabien Moizeau, Fernando Jaramillo, Hebert Kempf
    « Heterogeneity and the Formation of Risk-Sharing Coalitions »
  • 2011-10 - Françoise Bastié, Sylvie Cieply, Pascal Cussy
    « The Survival of New Firms : Do Bank Loans at Birth Matter ? »
  • 2011-09 - Fabrice Valognes, Hélène Ferrer, Guillermo Owen
    « Endogenous Coalitions Formations Through Technology Transfers and Fair Prices »
  • 2011-08 - Frédéric Gavrel
    « Is the Formal Sector too Large or too Small ? A Reexamination of Minimum Wages in Developing Countries »
  • 2011-07 - Frédéric Gavrel
    « On the Inefficiency of Matching Models of Unemployment with Heterogeneous Workers and Jobs when Firms Rank their Applicants »
  • 2011-06 - Thierry Pénard, Nicolas Poussing, Raphaël Suire
    « Does the Internet make people happier ? »
  • 2011-05 - Thierry Pénard, Sylvain Dejean, Raphaël Suire
    « Olson’s Paradox Revisited : An Empirical Analysis of Incentives to Contribute in P2P File-sharing Communities. »
  • 2011-04 - Muriel Gilardone
    « Rawls’ influence and counter-influence on Sen : post-welfarism and impartiality »
  • 2011-03 - Jean Bonnet, Thomas Brau, Bernard Cadet, Antonia Guijarro Madrid
    « Making students sensitive to entrepreneurship »
  • 2011-02 - Antoinette Baujard
    « L’économie du bien-être est morte. Vive l’ économie du bien-être ! »
  • 2011-01 - Elsa Orgiazzi, Paul Maarek
    « Which factor bears the cost of currency crises ? »

Working papers 2011 - documents de travail du CREM}}


  • Which factor bears the cost of currency crises ?
Creation-Date May 2011
Auteur /Author Elsa ORGIAZZI, (Université de Rennes 1, CREM-CNRS)
Auteur /Author Paul MAAREK, (Banque de France)
Mots clés / Keywords Currency crisis ; Labour share ; Factor reallocation ; Matching frictions
Classification-JEL : E25 ; J42
Série/ Serie MF (Macroeconomics and Finance)
Thème / Subject Choices under risk
Résumé / abstract This paper identifies which of the two factors, namely labour and capital, bears the cost of currency crises and for what reasons. It analyzes two main types of effects that currency crises may have on the labour share : across sector effects and within sector effects. We build a descriptive model with a tradable sector and a non-tradable one which can differ in their capital intensities so that structural changes occurring during currency crises may change the aggregate level of the labour share. The model also highlights that crises erode the bargaining power of workers so that within sectors, crises lower the labour share. We perform estimations on manufacturing sectoral panel data for 20 countries which have experienced currency crises. We conclude that currency crises lower the aggregate manufacturing labour share by 2 points on average and that this decline reflects mostly changes within sectors.
Lien / download 201101.pdf

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  • L’économie du bien-être est morte. Vive l’ économie du bien-être !
Creation-Date September 2003
Creation-Revision June 2011
Auteur /Author Antoinette BAUJARD, Université of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM-CNRS
Mots clés / Keywords Economie du bien-être ; Comparaisons interpersonnelles d’utilité ; histoire de l’économie normative / Welfare economics ; Interpersonal comparisons of utilities ; History of normative economics
Classification-JEL : A13 ; B2 ; D6
Série/ Serie PESC (Public Economics and Social Choice)
Thème / Subject Histoire de l’économie du bien-être / History of welfare economics
Résumé / abstract L’économie du bien-être a beaucoup évolué au cours du XXe siècle, jusqu’à entrer, disent certains, dans une impasse qui lui est fatale. Les controverses sur la possibilité et la pertinence des comparaisons interpersonnelles de bien-être sont réputées permettre d’expliquer cette évolution. Nous opposons à cette lecture standard une autre explication, essentiellement épistémologique et liée aux interprétations plus ou moins opérationnalles de l’utilité. Des conséquences importantes découlent de cette option, notamment quant au rôle de l’économie du bien-être dans l’action publique.
Lien / download 201102.pdf

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  • Making students sensitive to entrepreneurship
Creation-Date May 2011
Auteur /Author Jean BONNET, Associate Professor in Economics and Business Administration, University of Caen,France - CREM-CNRS
Co-auteur /Co-Author Thomas BRAU, Doctor in Economics, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, France - CREM-CNRS
Co-auteur /Co-Author Bernard CADET, Professor in Psychology, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, France
Co-auteur /Co-Author Antonia GUIJARRO MADRID, Associate professor Accounting and Finance Department, Technical University of Cartagena (UPCT). France.
Mots clés / Keywords career, company, entrepreneurship, making sensitive, student
Classification-JEL : L26
Série/ Serie Industrial Economics and Behavioral Economics (IE)
Thème / Subject Making students sensitive to entrepreneurship
Résumé / abstract The aim of this paper is to present a proposal to make students sensitive to entrepreneurship aiming at familiarizing students to the setting up of new firms and stimulating such a course of action. This awareness campaign would take place during the student’s curriculum and rest on a simulation exercise. This campaign is based on the results of a survey conducted at the Technical University of Cartagena (Spain). This study has identified some students’ aspirations to salaried employment and entrepreneurship. This survey also recognized some specific features that the campaign must integrate, in particular the need to make entrepreneurship compatible with the preparation for salaried employment. The results of this study are completed comparing them with the opinion from entrepreneurs of the same region. This comparison highlights some barriers to entrepreneurship among the students population, making it possible to complete the content of the proposed simulation exercise. This paper also highlights the absence of barriers of a psychological nature usually put forward by the literature, such as a low level of the need for achievement or the propensity for risk-taking.
Lien / download 201103.pdf

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  • Rawls’ influence and counter-influence on Sen : post-welfarism and impartiality
Creation-Date August 2011
Auteur /Author Muriel GILARDONE, Associate Professor in Economics, University of Caen, France - CREM-CNRS
Mots clés / Keywords Sen, Rawls, Interpersonal utility comparisons, post-welfarism, positional objectivity
Classification-JEL : D63, B31, B41
Résumé / abstract Rawls has been a constant reference for Sen both to overcome welfarism and consider impartiality. In this paper, we’ll try to identify Sen’s paradoxical relationship to Rawls’ work that has evolved with time. The dialogue between both authors emerged in the late sixties, while Sen was working on a constructive social choice theory. Sen greatly benefited from Rawls’ insight as his proposition for a “weak equity axiom” (Sen, 1973) attests, inspired by Rawls’ difference principle. Sen then developed an important critics of what he calls welfarism, partly induced by Rawls too. In the eighties, Sen came up with a capability approach centered on individual life potentialities, rather than utility or primary goods. While it has often been perceived as a mere extension of Rawls’ theory of justice, it has to be acknowledged that Sen developed a strong critics of Rawls’ view of impartiality that led him toward a concept of “trans-positional objectivity” as a better basis for social judgments. The Idea of justice gives a final and decisive inflexion to his position vis-à-vis Rawls : not only Sen (2009) disagrees with Rawls’ view of impartiality, but he refuses the social contract perspective to provide an underpinning for a theory of justice.
Lien / download 201104.pdf ]

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  • Olson’s Paradox Revisited : An Empirical Analysis of Incentives to Contribute in P2P File-sharing Communities.
Creation-Date August 2011
Auteur /Author Thierry PÉNARD, University of Rennes 1 - CREM-CNRS
Auteur /Author Sylvain DEJEAN, CREM-CNRS, Marsouin
Auteur /Author Raphaël SUIRE, University of Rennes 1 - CREM-CNRS
Mots clés / Keywords Olson’s paradox, collective goods, Peer-to-Peer, File-sharing, community.
Classification-JEL : H41 ; L86 ; K42
Résumé / abstract This article aims to examine how the size of file-sharing communities affects their functioning and performance (i.e. their capacity to share content). Olson (1965) argued that small communities are more able to provide collective goods. Using an original database on BitTorrent file-sharing communities, our article finds a positive relationship between the size of a community and the amount of collective goods provided. But, the individual incentives to contribute slightly decrease with community size. These results seem to indicate that Peer to Peer file-sharing communities provide a pure (non rival) public good. We also show that specialized communities are more efficient than general communities to promote cooperative behavior. Finally, the rules designed by the administrators of these communities play an active role to manage voluntary contributions and improve file-sharing performance.
Thème / Subject Network economics, Internet Economics, Public economics
Lien / download 201105.pdf

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  • Does the Internet make people happier ?
Creation-Date July 2011
Auteur /Author Thierry PÉNARD, University of Rennes 1 - CREM-CNRS, Marsouin
Auteur /Author Nicolas POUSSING, CEPS / INSTEAD, CREM-CNRS
Auteur /Author Raphaël SUIRE, University of Rennes 1 - CREM-CNRS, Marsouin
Mots clés / Keywords Internet, happiness, well-being, digital divide, social capital, social values
Classification-JEL : A12 ; D12 ; D6, H4, L86, Z13
Résumé / abstract As people are spending more time online, it is important to evaluate the impact of Internet use on individual well-being. Internet use yields direct utility and economic returns (e.g. better job, higher productivity) that may increase life satisfaction. But the Internet might also have detrimental effects (addiction, social isolation, e.g.). This paper empirically examines the relation between Internet use and subjective well-being. Using Luxemburgish data from a European social survey, we find evidence that non users are less satisfied in their life than Internet users. This result holds when we control for socio-demographic characteristics, social capital, values and beliefs, and health and income. Moreover, the positive influence of Internet use is stronger for low income and young individuals. These findings suggest that public policy aiming to reduce the digital divide are socially desirable
Lien / download 201106.pdf

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  • On the Inefficiency of Matching Models of Unemployment with Heterogeneous Workers and Jobs when Firms Rank their Applicants
Creation-Date February 2011
Auteur /Author Frédéric GAVREL, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, France - CREM-CNRS
Mots clés / Keywords Matching, Differentiation of skills, Applicant ranking, Labor market, efficiency
Classification-JEL : D8, J6
Résumé / abstract In a circular matching model, firms rank their applicants and pick the best suited one. Job creation appears to lower the average output. As firms do not internalize this effect, jobs are too many in the laissez-faire equilibrium under the Hosios condition. Due to similar externalities firms’ search intensities are too strong whereas workers’ search intensities are too weak.
Thème / Subject Efficiency of search-matching models with heterogeneous workers.
Lien / download 201107.pdf

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  • Is the Formal Sector too Large or too Small ? A Reexamination of Minimum Wages in Developing Countries
Creation-Date July 2011
Auteur /Author Frédéric GAVREL, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, France - CREM-CNRS
Mots clés / Keywords Formal and informal labor markets, applicant ranking, efficiency, minimum wage
Classification-JEL : O17, J64, J68
Résumé / abstract This paper reexamines the issue of the division of the labor force between the two sub-markets (formal and informal) of a developing economy. The formal sector is represented by a matching model with vertically differentiated workers. Assuming that firms hire their best applicants, we state that the formal sector is too small in terms of its labor force but too large in terms of job creation. Next we show that introducing a minimum wage increases the size of the formal sector with respect both to its labor force and to job creation. In accordance with the well-known paradox of Harris and Todaro, the enlargement of the formal market is accompanied by a rise in unemployment. However, when associated with a tax on job creation, the introduction of a minimum wage in the formal sector improves the efficiency of the labor market by making the formal sector more attractive to workers.
Thème / Subject Efficiency of the labor market in developing economies
Lien / download 201108.pdf

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  • Endogenous Coalitions Formations Through Technology Transfers and Fair Prices
Creation-Date April 2011
Auteur /Author Fabrice VALOGNES, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, CREM-CNRS UMR 6211.
Auteur /Author Hélène FERRER, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, CREM-CNRS UMR 6211.
Auteur /Author Guillermo Owen, Dept. of Mathematics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, USA.
Mots clés / Keywords Cooperative Game Theory, Technology Transfers, Modified Shapley Value
Classification-JEL : C71, L13, L24.
Résumé / abstract We consider a situation in which members of an oligopoly have different technologies, which allow them to produce at different costs. Members may license their technology to other members. Using the Aumann-Drèze modification of the Shapley value, we compute fair prices for these licenses. We also study the problem of stability for these ``licensing coalitions.’’
Lien / download 201109.pdf

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  • The Survival of New Firms : Do Bank Loans at Birth Matter ?
Creation-Date September 2011
Auteur /Author Françoise BASTIE, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, CREM (UMR CNRS)
Auteur /Author Sylvie CIEPLY, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, CREM (UMR CNRS)
Auteur /Author Pascal CUSSY, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, CREM (UMR CNRS)
Mots clés / Keywords Survival, New firms, Banking debt, Screening, Duration.
Classification-JEL : M13, D82, G21
Résumé / abstract In this article, we explore the issue of whether the financial conditions into which a firm is born have an effect on its survival chances. After both correction of the omitted variables bias and introduction of time varying covariates, we show two distinctive effects of banking debt on the survival of new firms in function of the time horizon : an insignificant or negative impact of banking debt in the short term (less than 2 years) and a persistently positive effect in the medium term (more than 2 years). Founding financial conditions have long-lasting effects upon survival.
Thème / Subject Entrepreunership and Banking economy
Lien / download 201110.pdf

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  • Heterogeneity and the Formation of Risk-Sharing Coalitions
Creation-Date September 2011
Auteur /Author Fabien MOIZEAU, University of Rennes 1 - CREM-CNRS
Auteur /Author Fernando JARAMILLO, Universidad del Rosario, Bogota (Colombia)
Auteur /Author Hubert KEMPF, École Normale Supérieure de Cachan et Paris School of Economics
Mots clés / Keywords Risk Sharing, Group Membership, Social Segmentation
Classification-JEL : C71, D3, D71, D81
Résumé / abstract We study the relationship between the distribution of individuals’ attributes over the population and the extent of risk sharing in a risky environment. We consider a society where individuals differing with respect to risk or their degree of risk aversion form risk-sharing coalitions in the absence of financial markets. We obtain a partition belonging to the core of the membership game. It is homophily-based : the less risky (or the more risk tolerant) agents congregate together and reject more risky ones (or less risk tolerant ones) into other coalitions. The distribution of risk or risk aversion affects the number and the size of these coalitions. It turns out that individuals may pay a lower risk premium in more risky societies. We also show that a higher heterogeneity in risk or risk aversion leads to a lower degree of partial risk-sharing. The empirical evidence on partial risk sharing can be understood when the endogenous partition of society into risk-sharing coalitions is taken into account.
Thème / Subject Risk Sharing and Coalition Formation
Lien / download 201111.pdf

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  • Fiscal Policies and Trade : On the existence of Nash equilibria
Creation-Date September 2011
Auteur /Author Abderrahmane ZIAD, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, CREM (UMR CNRS)
Auteur /Author Emmanuelle TAUGOURDEAU, CNRS CES, Université de Paris 1, ENS Cachan
Mots clés / Keywords Fiscal policy, Trade, Nash equilibrium.
Classification-JEL : C62, C72, F42
Résumé / abstract This paper studies the existence of a fiscal Nash equilibrium in a multi-country model of trade where the relative prices are the channels of transmission of scal policies between countries. We stipulate the necessary conditions on goods, consumptions and trade that allow for the existence of a Nash equilibrium in the fiscal game. In the particular case of homotethic utility functions, we show that conditions on the shape and the degree of the curvature of the relative prices functions are sufficient to guarantee the existence of the Nash equilibrium.
Lien / download 201112.pdf

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  • Nonsymmetric singleton congestion games : case of two resources
Creation-Date September 2011
Auteur /Author Abderrahmane ZIAD, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, CREM (UMR CNRS)
Auteur /Author Samir SBABOU, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, CREM (UMR CNRS)
Auteur /Author Hatem SMAOUI, CEMOI, Université de la Réunion
Mots clés / Keywords Singleton congestion games, Nash equilibria, Potential function, Finite improvement property
Classification-JEL : C72
Résumé / abstract In this note we study the existence of Nash equilibria in nonsymmetric finite congestion games, complementing the results obtained by Milchtaich on monotone-decreasing congestion games. More specifically, we examine the case of two resources and we propose a simple method describing all Nash equilibria in this kind of congestion games. Additionally, we give a new and short proof establishing the existence of a Nash equilibrium in this type of games without invoking the potential function or the finite improvement property.
Lien / download 201113.pdf

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  • A formula for Nash equilibria in monotone singleton congestion games
Creation-Date September 2011
Auteur /Author Abderrahmane ZIAD, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, CREM (UMR CNRS)
Auteur /Author Samir SBABOU, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, CREM (UMR CNRS)
Auteur /Author Hatem SMAOUI, CEMOI, Université de la Réunion
Mots clés / Keywords Singleton congestion games, Nash equilibria, Potential function, Finite improvement property.
Classification-JEL : C72
Résumé / abstract This paper provides a simple formula describing all Nash equilibria in symmetric monotone singleton congestion games. Our approach also yields a new and short proof establishing the existence of a Nash equilibrium in this kind of congestion games without invoking the potential function or the nite improvement property.
Lien / download 201114.pdf

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  • Nash equilibria in nonsymmetric singleton congestion games with exact partition
Creation-Date September 2011
Auteur /Author Abderrahmane ZIAD, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, CREM (UMR CNRS)
Auteur /Author Samir SBABOU, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, CREM (UMR CNRS)
Auteur /Author Hatem SMAOUI, CEMOI, Université de la Réunion
Mots clés / Keywords Singleton congestion games, Nash equilibria, Potential function, Finite best-reply property.
Classification-JEL : C72
Résumé / abstract We define a new class of games, which we qualify as congestion games with exact partition. These games constitute a subfamily of singleton congestion games for which the players are restricted to choose only one strategy, but they each possess their own utility function. The aim of this paper is to develop a method leading to an easier identification of all Nash equilibria in this kind of congestion games. We also give a new proof establishing the existence of a Nash equilibrium in this type of games without invoking the potential function or the finite best-reply property.
Lien / download 201115.pdf

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  • Does Bargaining Matter in the Small Firm’s Matching Model ?
Creation-Date September 2011
Auteur /Author Olivier LHARIDON, University of Rennes 1 - CREM-CNRS
Auteur /Author Franck MALHERBET, École Polytechnique, IZA and fRDB
Auteur /Author Sébastien PÉREZ-DUARTE, European Central Bank (BCE)
Mots clés / Keywords appariement, négociations, jeux coopératifs.
Classification-JEL : C71, C78, J20, J60
Résumé / abstract In this article, we use a stylized model of the labor market to investigate the effects of three alternative and well-known bargaining solutions. We apply the Nash, the Egalitarian and the Kalai-Smorodinsky bargaining solutions in the small firm’s matching model of unemployment. We first show that the Egalitarian and the Kalai-Smorodinsky solutions are easily implementable within search-matching economies. Second, we show that the differences between the three solution are weaker than expected. This contrasts with some of the main results obtained by the recent literature.
Lien / download 201116.pdf

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  • Firm start-up strategies and performance in France : Survival and growth
Creation-Date October 2011
Auteur /Author Jean BONNET, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM-CNRS
Auteur /Author Nicolas LE PAPE, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM-CNRS
Auteur /Author Teresa NELSON, Simmons College School of Management - Boston
Mots clés / Keywords High growth new firms, Aggressiveness, Indebtedness, Model, Performance
Classification-JEL : L2, C3, C41
Résumé / abstract Essential performance outcomes of the new firm, including survival and growth, are related to financial and operational factors of the firm. We present a model that shows that firm financing via debt has some influence on types of market outreach, survival, and also growth of new firms in France. Using a robust, longitudinal dataset of the population of firms throughout the country established, continuing, and closing over the period of 2002 to 2007 (available through the French government via the SINE Survey : Système d’informations sur les nouvelles entreprises), we show that for a given indebtedness of the new firm, the entrepreneurial behavior generally improves the survival and the growth of new ventures.
Lien / download 201117.pdf

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  • Earning Inequalities Between and Within Nests : A Multilevel Modeling Approach Applied to the Case of France
Creation-Date October 2011
Auteur /Author Jean-Pascal Guironnet, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM-CNRS
Auteur /Author Matthieu Bunel, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM-CNRS
Mots clés / Keywords Multilevel Models, Earnings, Gender Inequality, Local Labor Market
Classification-JEL : I23, R23, D31, J31
Résumé / abstract This paper presents a simultaneously study of the impact of gender and localization inequalities on the earnings of under-graduates. Using multilevel modeling, the framework draws both individual-level (i.e., pertaining to the individual elements of groups) and aggregate-level (i.e., pertaining to the group as a whole) data under a single specification, in order to study their potential interactions. These inequalities are studied with respect to young workers who left higher education in 2004 and who had a full-time job in the private sector three years after graduation (i.e., in 2007). To take into account the process of selection for employment, our multilevel model uses the Heckman two-step procedure. Following this approach, Occupational Groups (OG) are found to capture 59.4% of the earning heterogeneity whereas Employment Area (EA) nests capture 7.6%. This 59.4% figure is explained by two phenomena : (i) OG are dominated by seniors, and (ii) OG are dominated by males with higher earnings. These group characteristics also influence gender inequalities : there is a higher wage penalty for females in (i) OG dominated by males, and (ii) OG dominated by senior workers. In contrast to the gender gap, immigrant inequalities manifest closer links to EA. Policy implications are derived from our results.
Lien / download 201118.pdf

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  • L’Apprentissage des Collectifs de Travail Structuré par les TIC dans le Domaine des Services Informatiques
Creation-Date October 2011
Auteur /Author Khadidja BENALLOU, University of Caen Basse-Normandie – CREM-CNRS
Auteur /Author Baghdad BENTAHRI, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - NIMEC-CNRS
Mots clés / Keywords
Classification-JEL : M54, L86, O39
Résumé / abstract L’apprentissage collectif revêt un caractère stratégique dans un contexte où les TIC (technologies de l’information et de la communication) s’imposent et nous sont imposées. Leurs usages sont représentatifs de moments clefs dans le processus de diffusion des apprentissages, mais on leur reproche d’être impersonnels et de se limiter à des situations d’apprentissage individuel. Le nécessaire développement de l’action collective au sein des entreprises avec l’absence d’effets apparents de l’utilisation des TIC sur la performance de la firme vient renforcer cette impression. L’objectif de notre travail est d’essayer de comprendre les impacts des ressources (humaines et technologiques) en système d’information sur la performance organisationnelle ; en examinant le processus qui explicite comment ces ressources sont actionnées dans le management organisationnel. L’étude des résolutions collectives de problèmes professionnels cherche à comparer l’action collective dans des situations similaires et des situations différentes. Ces configurations productives replacent l’importance du relationnel dans l’organisationnel, signe du passage de la focalisation de leur management sur les tâches à une focalisation sur les personnes.
Lien / download 201119.pdf

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  • Reconsidering the Demand for Municipal Public Goods Specification : Evidence from French
Creation-Date October 2011
Auteur /Author Marie-Estelle Binet, University of Rennes 1 - CREM, (UMR 6211 CNRS)
Mots clés / Keywords Demand for local public services, Median voter, Linear expenditure system, Nonlinear least squares
Classification-JEL : H72, R51, C51
Résumé / abstract Following Bergtrom and Goodman (1973), this paper can be integrated in the set of studies that have estimated the demand for municipal public services. The main innovation in this paper is methodological as we use a Stone Geary utility function to describe the median voter preferences. Unlike previous studies, we are able to derive the local public expenditure function in a (simplified) linear expenditure system, directly from the theoretical framework. The linear expenditure system provides an estimate of the portion of the incompressible public expenditure in each municipality. Using cross sectional municipal data from France, it is found to be 30% of the total per capita expenditure. Compared to the specification generally used in the literature, linear expenditure system shows a greater sensitivity to price and income variations and reveal a greater number of significant variables.
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  • Innovative entrepreneurship as a way to meet professional dissatisfactions
Creation-Date October 2011
Auteur /Author Jean Bonnet, Associate Professor in Economics and Business Administration, University of Caen,France - CREM-CNRS
Co-auteur /Co-Author Thomas Brau, Doctor in Economics, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, France - CREM-CNRS
Co-auteur /Co-Author Antonia Guijarro Madrid, Associate professor Accounting and Finance Department, Technical University of Cartagena (UPCT), Spain
Mots clés / Keywords Innovative entrepreneurship, Psychology of the entrepreneur, Job satisfaction, Professional dissatisfactions, Professional values
Classification-JEL : L26
Résumé / abstract The creation of an innovative firm as a way to remedy the professional dissatisfactions of salaried people has been evoked early in the literature (Shapero 1975, 1977). In this paper, while covering the « elementary components » of global dissatisfactions we focus on eight specific fields : creativity, intellectual stimulation and variety related to the expression of intellectual capacities ; management, independence, prestige characterizing the attachment to executive job ; altruism and tangible work related to the purpose of work (helping others and getting concrete results of one’s labor). Results show that the creation of innovative firms takes place as an effective way to solve in some fields « what was not going well » in the salaried work. These results make it possible to detect profiles of salaried people looking for professional change who might be interested by the wide possibilities offered by the innovative firm for their choice of new orientations.
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  • A Seasonal Integration and Cointegration Analysis of Residential Water Demand in Tunisia.
Creation-Date November 2011
Auteur /Author Marie-Estelle Binet, University of Rennes 1 - CREM, (UMR 6211 CNRS)
Co-auteur /Co-Author Younes Ben Zaïd, University of Rennes 1 - CREM, (UMR 6211 CNRS)
Mots clés / Keywords Residential water demand, seasonal cointegration, seasonal error correction model
Classification-JEL :
Résumé / abstract The main originality of this article is to empirically incorporate the effect of seasonality in estimating the residential water demand function. We use quarterly times series for the period 1980.1 to 2007.4 from Tunisia and a two consumption blocks decomposition (in a lower and in an upper blocks). As the Error Correction model is poorly significant, we obtain a long-run price elasticity for the upper block equals to -0.39 and greater than the corresponding short run elasticity which is not significant. Therefore, we are able to advocate policies for the upper block both in favor of a water management through pricing and promoting the adoption of water saving equipments. The introduction of seasonality claims for new insights concerning water conservation policies as evidence in favor of seasonal cointegration at biannual frequency is found for the two blocks. Results show that a seasonal pricing policy will not be efficient to reduce the upper block consumption. But, as a part of the consumers switch from the lower to the upper block in summer, we propose to increase the length of the lower block to ensure the satisfaction of households’ essential needs in all seasons.
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  • Innovation, productivité et exportation : Y-a-t-il un effet d’auto-sélection consciente ? Une étude empirique sur les PMI de basse-Normandie.
Creation-Date September 2011
Auteur /Author Mohammad Movahedi, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM-CNRS, France
Co-auteur /Co-Author Olivier Gaussens, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM-CNRS, France
Mots clés / Keywords Innovation, Productivity, Exportation, Conscious self-selection
Classification-JEL : F1, O3, D2, L25, C14, C3
Résumé / abstract This paper presents an analysis of the relationship between innovation, productivity and exports regarding the SMEs. The main research aim of this study consists in analyzing the hypothesis of firms’ conscious self-selection in the export markets. To measure innovation, we consider the dimensions of technological as well as non technological innovation, as defined by the Oslo Manual (2005). To achieve this, we use the database of SMEs obtained from the survey conducted in the project IDEIS. First, we highlight the existence of export as well as innovation apparent premium, i.e. the advantage of exporting (innovative) firms versus non-exporting (not innovative) ones in terms of productivity. In addition, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the export premium for firms carried out process and organization innovations with the enough exportation. Finally we show the firms’ conscious self-selection in export markets in endogenizing productivity through innovation.
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  • Multi-Levels Bargaining and Efficiency in Search Economies
Creation-Date November 2011
Auteur /Author Olivier Lharidon, University of Rennes 1 - CREM-CNRS
Co-auteur /Co-Author Franck Malherbet, Ecole Polytechnique
Mots clés / Keywords Search and Matching Models, Bargaining Levels, Labor Market Policies
Classification-JEL : J41, J48, J51, J60
Résumé / abstract In this note, we extend the traditional search and matching framework to take account of the different levels at which negotiations may take place. We show that, in the absence of any distortion, sector-level bargaining ought to be less efficient than bargaining taking place at the other levels. This type of inefficiency leaves room for labor market policies. We show that a well designed combination of employment protection, hiring subsidy and payroll tax is able to restore efficiency. In addition, this result suggests that the relationship between the labor market performance and the level at which bargaining takes place is conditional on labor market institutions.
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  • Long-run identifying restrictions on VARs within the AS-AD framework
Creation-Date November 2011
Auteur /Author Jean-Sébastien Pentecôte, University of Rennes 1 - CREM-UMR CNRS 6211
Mots clés / Keywords Search and Matching Models, Bargaining Levels, Labor Market Policies
Classification-JEL : J41, J48, J51, J60
Thème / Subject Econometric and macro-economic issues in VAR identification using long-run restrictions
Résumé / abstract Bayoumi and Eichengreen’s (BE, 1994) article has been very influent in the empirics of the core-periphery view of fixed exchange rate agreements. They rely on the basic AS-AD macroeconomic model in order to identify supply and demand shocks through long-run restrictions in vector autoregressions. Doing this should enable one to assess the size of such disturbances and the asymmetry between countries. While reference is usually made to Blanchard and Quah (BQ, 1989), it is shown here how this factorization has been modified by BE and how the two resulting decomposition schemes can be linked. Contrary to BE’s premise, relaxing the assumption of shocks of equal size is not just a matter of scale. The empirical properties of the exchange regime are modified, especially as regards the correlation of shocks. Given the VAR setting used in the related studies, it is also established that zero-constraints on either instantaneous or long-run impulse responses provide identical results. An empirical assessment of the euro currency area over 1996-2008 illustrate these points. The recorded evidence suggests that non-zero restrictions imply slope coefficients of the AS and AD curves close to values derived from New-Keynesian models.
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  • Incitations à fusionner dans un oligopole mixte asymétrique
Creation-Date November 2011
Auteur /Author Sylvain Kadohognon Ouattara, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM-CNRS, France
Mots clés / Keywords oligopole mixte, fusion, coûts quadratiques, efficacité
Classification-JEL : L00, L13, L33
Résumé / abstract Cet article analyse les incitations à fusionner dans un oligopole mixte asymétrique constitué de deux firmes privées identiques et d’une …firme publique. Sous l’hypothèse qu’il existe un écart technologique entre la firme publique et les …firmes privées, nous montrons que la fusion entre ces deux types d’entreprises peut avoir lieu à condition que la firme publique ait un retard technologique et que la part d’action des propriétaires privés soit relativement grande. Ces résultats montrent le contraste avec ceux obtenus par Artz et al (2009) qui montrent que dans un triopole mixte où toutes les firmes disposent d’une technologie identique, la fusion entre entreprises publique et privée peut avoir lieu à condition que la part d’action du privé soit faible.
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  • Does the regional dimension matter as regards finance and entrepreneurship ?
Creation-Date November 2011
Auteur /Author Jean Bonnet, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM-CNRS, France
Auteur /Author Sylvie Cieply, University of Caen Basse-Normandie - CREM-CNRS, France
Auteur /Author Marcus Dejardin, FUNDP - University of Namur, CERPE, Belgium
Mots clés / Keywords financial constraints, credit rationing, financial relationships, new firms, regional development, regional disparities
Classification-JEL : G20, M13, R10
Résumé / abstract This article investigates the interrelationships between finance and entrepreneurship by exploring regional discrepancies in France. The focus is (1) on regional differences in financial relationships, (2) on the way these relations influence financial constraints on new firms and (3) on the complementary/substitutable effects between funds. No path of exclusion is identified. Rather, firms that are self-constraining or suffer from a weak credit rationing are the ones that later on develop intensive relationships with banks. Substitution exists in almost all the French regions. Results suggest the departure point of an original pecking order theory according to the entrepreneurial intensity of regions.
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  • Causes and Consequences of Bailing out Expectations of Subcentral Governments : Theory and Evidence from the Italian Regions
Creation-Date October 2011
Auteur /Author Fabio Padovano, CREM-CNRS and Condorcet Center, University of Rennes 1 (France) & DIPES-Università Roma Tre (Italy)
Mots clés / Keywords Expectations ; intergovernmental relations ; transfers ; local public spending ; bailing out ; positive analysis
Classification-JEL : H71, H73, H77, D78
Résumé / abstract This paper examines the strategic interactions among the central and a subcentral government where incomplete information forces both to form expectations about the other’s behaviour, especially the probability that the central government will bail out the local one. Various determinants and outcomes of the strategic interaction are explored. The model generates empirical restrictions about the central government’s transfer decisions and the lower government’s spending behaviour. These restrictions are tested on a sample of 20 Italian Regions. Data show that bailing out expectations are a quantitatively important component of local government spending.
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  • Using Respondents’ Uncertainty Scores to Mitigate Hypothetical Bias in Community-Based Health Insurance Studies
Creation-Date October 2011
Auteur /Author Hermann Pythagore Pierre Donfouet, CREM, UMR 6211, University of Rennes I, France
Auteur /Author Pierre-Alexandre Mahieu, LEMNA, University of Nantes, France
Auteur /Author Eric Malin CREM, UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes I, France
Mots clés / Keywords Community-based health insurance, contingent valuation method, hypothetical bias
Classification-JEL : C35, D80, I38
Résumé / abstract Community-based health insurance has been implemented in several developing countries to help the poor to gain access to adequate health care services. Assessing what the poor are willing to pay is of paramount importance for policy-making. The contingent valuation method, which relies on a hypothetical market, is commonly used for this purpose. But the presence of the hypothetical bias which is most often inherent in this method tends to bias the estimates upward, and compromises policy-making. This paper uses respondents’ uncertainty scores in an attempt to mitigate hypothetical bias in community-based health insurance in one rural setting in Cameroon. Uncertainty scores are often employed in single dichotomous choice surveys. An originality of the paper is to use such an approach in a double-bounded dichotomous choice survey. The results suggest that this instrument is effective at decreasing the mean WTP.
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  • Dealing with Internal Inconsistency in Double-Bounded Dichotomous Choice : An Application to Community-Based Health Insurance
Creation-Date December 2011
Auteur /Author Hermann Pythagore Pierre Donfouet, CREM, UMR 6211, University of Rennes I, France
Auteur /Author Pierre-Alexandre Mahieu, LEMNA, University of Nantes, France
Auteur /Author P. Wilner Jeanty, Kinder Institute for Urban Research, Rice University, Houston, Texas, US
Mots clés / Keywords Contingent valuation ; internal inconsistency ; certainty calibration ; community-based health insurance
Classification-JEL : C15, D6, I38
Résumé / abstract Contingent valuation method is commonly used in the field of health economics in an attempt to help policy maker in taking decisions. The use of the double-bounded dichotomous choice format results in a substantial gain in statistical efficiency over the single bounded dichotomous choice format. Yet, this efficiency gain comes at the cost of biasness known as internal inconsistency. This paper aims at reducing this internal inconsistency in double-bounded dichotomous choice by using the certainty calibration technique in a community-based health insurance study. Findings confirm the internal inconsistency between the initial and the follow-up responses and the statistical efficiency gains of the double-bounded dichotomous choice over the single-bounded dichotomous choice. Furthermore, the use of certainty calibration reduces this internal inconsistent pattern in responses and still maintains efficiency gain. We further discuss the policy implications.
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